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Agricultural Policy, Migration, and Malaria in the 1930s United States

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  • Alan Barreca
  • Price V. Fishback
  • Shawn Kantor

Abstract

The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) caused a population shift in the United States in the 1930s. Evaluating the effects of the AAA on the incidence of malaria can therefore offer important lessons regarding the broader consequences of demographic changes. Using a quasi-first difference model and a robust set of controls, we find a negative association between AAA expenditures and malaria death rates at the county level. Further, we find the AAA caused relatively low-income groups to migrate from counties with high-risk malaria ecologies. These results suggest that the AAA-induced migration played an important role in the reduction of malaria.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17526.

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Date of creation: Oct 2011
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Publication status: published as “Agricultural Policy, Migration, and Malaria in the 1930s United States.” With Alan Barreca and Shawn Kantor. Explorations in Economic History 49 (2012): 381-398.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17526

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  1. Hoyt Bleakley, 2007. "Disease and Development: Evidence from Hookworm Eradication in the American South," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 122(1), pages 73-117, 02.
  2. Price V. Fishback & Michael R. Haines & Shawn Kantor, 2007. "Births, Deaths, and New Deal Relief during the Great Depression," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(1), pages 1-14, February.
  3. Fishback, Price V. & Kantor, Shawn & Wallis, John Joseph, 2003. "Can the New Deal's three Rs be rehabilitated? A program-by-program, county-by-county analysis," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 278-307, July.
  4. Adrienne M. Lucas, 2010. "Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 46-71, April.
  5. Hoyt Bleakley, 2003. "Disease and Development: Evidence from the American South," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 376-386, 04/05.
  6. Hoyt Bleakley, 2010. "Malaria Eradication in the Americas: A Retrospective Analysis of Childhood Exposure," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 1-45, April.
  7. Jonathan F. Fox, 2011. "Public health, poor relief and improving urban child mortality outcomes in the decade prior to the New Deal," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2011-005, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  8. Hong, Sok Chul, 2007. "The Burden of Early Exposure to Malaria in the United States, 1850–1860: Malnutrition and Immune Disorders," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 67(04), pages 1001-1035, December.
  9. Conley, Timothy G. & Molinari, Francesca, 2005. "Spatial Correlation Robust Inference with Errors in Location or Distance," Working Papers, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics 05-12, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
  10. Alan I. Barreca, 2010. "The Long-Term Economic Impact of In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(4), pages 865-892.
  11. Fishback, Price V. & Horrace, William C. & Kantor, Shawn, 2006. "The impact of New Deal expenditures on mobility during the Great Depression," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 179-222, April.
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