An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Anti-Poverty Programs in the United States
AbstractWe assess the effectiveness of means-tested and social insurance programs in the United States. We show that per capita expenditures on these programs as a whole have grown over time but expenditures on some programs have declined. The benefit system in the U.S. has a major impact on poverty rates, reducing the percent poor in 2004 from 29 percent to 13.5 percent, estimates which are robust to different measures of the poverty line. We find that, while there are significant behavioral side effects of many programs, their aggregate impact is very small and does not affect the magnitude of the aggregate poverty impact of the system. The system reduces poverty the most for the disabled and the elderly and least for several groups among the non-elderly and non-disabled. Over time, we find that expenditures have shifted toward the disabled and the elderly, and away from those with the lowest incomes and toward those with higher incomes, with the consequence that post-transfer rates of deep poverty for some groups have increased. We conclude that the U.S. benefit system is paternalistic and tilted toward the support of the employed and toward groups with special needs and perceived deservingness.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17042.
Date of creation: May 2011
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Publication status: published as An Ass ess m ent of th e Ef fe ct ivenes s of Ant i- Povert y Programs in t he Un it ed S ta te s. In Oxfor d Han dboo k of t he Econ om ic s of Povert y, ed. P. J ef fe rs on, Ox for d Uni versi ty Pre ss, 201 2 ( wit h Y. Be n- Shal om and J .K . Scho lz).
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Other versions of this item:
- Yonatan Ben-Shalom & Robert A. Moffitt & John Karl Scholz, 2011. "An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Anti-Poverty Programs in the United States," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 6980, Mathematica Policy Research.
- Yonatan Ben-Shalom & Robert Moffitt & John Karl Scholz, 2011. "An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Anti-Poverty Programs in the United States," Economics Working Paper Archive 579, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
- H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
- I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
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