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Under Pressure? The Effect of Peers on Outcomes of Young Adults

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  • Sandra E. Black
  • Paul J. Devereux
  • Kjell G. Salvanes

Abstract

A variety of public campaigns, including the “Just Say No” campaign of the 1980s and 1990s that encouraged teenagers to “Just Say No to Drugs”, are based on the premise that teenagers are very susceptible to peer influences. Despite this, very little is known about the effect of school peers on the long-run outcomes of teenagers. This is primarily due to two factors: the absence of information on peers merged with long-run outcomes of individuals and, equally important, the difficulty of separately identifying the role of peers. This paper uses data on the population of Norway and idiosyncratic variation in cohort composition within schools to examine the role of peer composition in 9th grade on longer-run outcomes such as IQ scores at age 18, teenage childbearing, post-compulsory schooling educational track, adult labor market status, and earnings. We find that outcomes are influenced by the proportion of females in the grade, and these effects differ for men and women. Other peer variables (average age, average mother’s education) have little impact on the outcomes of teenagers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 16004.

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Date of creation: May 2010
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Publication status: published as Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2013. "Under Pressure? The Effect of Peers on Outcomes of Young Adults," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(1), pages 119 - 153.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16004

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References

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  1. Gould, Eric D & Lavy, Victor & Paserman, Marco Daniele, 2005. "Does Immigration Affect the Long-Term Educational Outcomes of Natives? Quasi-Experimental Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 5439, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Andreas Ammermueller & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2006. "Peer Effects in European Primary Schools: Evidence from PIRLS," NBER Working Papers 12180, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Victor Lavy & Analía Schlosser, 2007. "Mechanisms and Impacts of Gender Peer Effects at School," NBER Working Papers 13292, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Kang, Changhui, 2007. "Classroom peer effects and academic achievement: Quasi-randomization evidence from South Korea," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 458-495, May.
  5. Duflo, Esther & Dupas, Pascaline & Kremer, Michael, 2008. "Peer Effects and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 7043, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2011. "Too Young to Leave the Nest? The Effects of School Starting Age," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 455-467, May.
  7. Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2005. "The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 120(2), pages 669-700, May.
  8. Victor Lavy & Olmo Silva & Felix Weinhardt, 2009. "The Good, the Bad and the Average: Evidence on the Scale and Nature of Ability Peer Effects in Schools," NBER Working Papers 15600, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Kramarz, Francis & Machin, Stephen & Ouazad, Amine, 2008. "What Makes a Test Score? The Respective Contributions of Pupils, Schools, and Peers in Achievement in English Primary Education," IZA Discussion Papers 3866, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Andreas Ammermueller & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 2009. "Peer effects in European primary schools: evidence from PIRLS," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library 25534, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  11. Scott E. Carrell & Richard L. Fullerton & James E. West, 2008. "Does Your Cohort Matter? Measuring Peer Effects in College Achievement," NBER Working Papers 14032, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  13. Caroline Hoxby, 2000. "Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation," NBER Working Papers 7867, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Elizabeth Cascio & Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, 2007. "First in the Class? Age and the Education Production Function," NBER Working Papers 13663, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Geay, Charlotte & McNally, Sandra & Telhaj, Shqiponja, 2012. "Non-Native Speakers of English in the Classroom: What Are the Effects on Pupil Performance?," IZA Discussion Papers 6451, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Landerso, Rasmus & Nielsen, Helena Skyt & Simonsen, Marianne, 2013. "School Starting Age and Crime," IZA Discussion Papers 7228, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Hessel Oosterbeek & Reyn van Ewijk, 2010. "Gender Peer Effects in University: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-113/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Kaja Høiseth Brugård, 2013. "Gender Peer Effects on Further Education," Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology 14613, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
  5. Karin Monstad & Carol Propper & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2011. "Is teenage motherhood contagious? Evidence from a Natural Experiment," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 11/262, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  6. Leuven, Edwin & Rønning, Marte, 2011. "Classroom Grade Composition and Pupil Achievement," IZA Discussion Papers 5922, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Wen Fan, 2011. "School Tenure and Student Achievement," Working Papers, School Of Economics, University College Dublin 201124, School Of Economics, University College Dublin.
  8. repec:dgr:uvatin:2010113 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Duncan McVicar & Julie Moschion & Chris Ryan, 2013. "Right Peer, Right Now? Endogenous Peer Effects and Achievement in Victorian Primary Schools," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne wp2013n22, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  10. Christian Dustmann & Patrick A. Puhani & Uta Schönberg, 2012. "The Long-term Effects of School Quality on Labor Market Outcomes and Educational Attainment," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1208, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  11. Jon Marius Vaag Iversen & Hans Bonesrønning, 2014. "Conditional Gender Peer Effects?," CESifo Working Paper Series 4565, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Friesen, Jane & Krauth, Brian, 2011. "Ethnic enclaves in the classroom," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 656-663, October.
  13. Salvador Contreras & Frank Badua & Mitchell Adrian, 2012. "Peer Effects on Undergraduate Business Student Performance," International Review of Economic Education, Economics Network, University of Bristol, Economics Network, University of Bristol, vol. 11(1), pages 57-66.

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