Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Crowding Out or Crowding In? Evidence on Debt-Equity Substitutability

Contents:

Author Info

  • Benjamin M. Friedman
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    When the composition of assets outstanding in the market changes, the pattern of expected asset returns also changes, shifting to whatever return structure will induce investors to hold just the new composition of exisiting assets. The object of this paper is to determine, on the basis of the respective risks associated with the returns to broad classes of financial assets in the United States, and hence on the basis of the implied portfolio substitutabilities among these assets, how government deficit financing affects the structure of market-clearing expected returns on debt and equity securities traded in U.S. markets.The empirical results indicate that government deficit financing raises expected debt returns relative to expected equity returns, regardless of the maturity of the government's financing. More specifically, financing a single $100 billion government deficit by issuing short-term debt lowers the expected return on long-term debt by .06%, and lowers the expected return on equity by .33%, relative to the return on short-term debt. Financing a $100 billion deficit by issuing long-term debt raises the expected return on long-term debt by .10%, but lowers the expected return on equity by .24%,again in comparison to the return on short-term debt. These per-unit magnitudes are not huge, but in the current U.S. context of government deficits approximating $200 billion -- year after year -- they are not trivially small either.These results have immediate implications for the composition of private financing. In addition, in conjunction with some assumption (for example, about monetary policy) to anchor the overall return structure,they bear implications for the total volume of private financing, as wellas for capital formation and other interest sensitive elements of aggregate demand.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w1565.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 1565.

    as in new window
    Length:
    Date of creation: Feb 1985
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published as "Crowding Out or Crowding In? Economic Consequences of Financing Government Deficits", BP, Vol. 9, no. 3 (1977): 593-641.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1565

    Note: ME
    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
    Phone: 617-868-3900
    Email:
    Web page: http://www.nber.org
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords:

    References

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Benjamin M. Friedman & Kenneth N. Kuttner, 1988. "Time-Varying Risk Perceptions and the Pricing of Risky Assets," NBER Working Papers 2694, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. McClain, Katherine T. & Humphreys, H. Brett & Boscan, Atahualpa, 1996. "Measuring risk in the mining sector with ARCH models with important observations on sample size," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 369-391, December.
    3. Robert S. Pindyck, 1986. "Risk Aversion and Determinants of Stock Market Behavior," NBER Working Papers 1921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Chang, Tsangyao & Chiang, Gengnan, 2012. "Transitional Behavior of Government Debt Ratio on Growth: The Case of OECD Countries," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 24-37, June.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1565. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.