Tax Policies for Low-Carbon Technologies
AbstractThe U.S. tax code provides a number of subsidies for low-carbon technologies. I discuss the difficulties of achieving key policy goals with subsidies as opposed to using taxes to raise the price of pollution-related activities. In particular, subsidies lower the cost of energy (on average) rather than raising it. Thus consumer demand responses work at cross purposes to the goal of reducing emissions (especially as average cost pricing is used for electricity). Second, it is difficult to achieve technology neutrality with subsidies -- here defined as an equal subsidy cost per ton of CO2 avoided. Third, many subsidies are inframarginal. Finally, subsidies often suffer from unintended interactions with other policies. I conclude with some observations on the use of price-based instruments. In particular I discuss how a carbon tax could be designed to achieve environmental goals of emission caps over a control period.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15054.
Date of creation: Jun 2009
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Publication status: published as Metcalf, Gilbert E., 2009. "Tax Policies for Low-Carbon Technologies," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 62(3), pages 519-33, September.
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Other versions of this item:
- Gilbert Metcalf, 2009. "Tax Policies for Low-Carbon Technologies," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0733, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
- Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-06-17 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2009-06-17 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2009-06-17 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-PBE-2009-06-17 (Public Economics)
- NEP-PUB-2009-06-17 (Public Finance)
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