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The Internationalization of Venture Capital and Private Equity

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  • Joshua Aizenman
  • Jake Kendall

Abstract

This paper investigates the internationalization of venture capital (VC) and private equity (PE) investments. We derive flows between countries of VC and PE investments worldwide, relying on comprehensive firm-level data sources, covering three decades and about 100 countries. A gravity analysis indicates that distance, common language, and colonial ties are significant factors in directing these flows. Additionally, the presence of high-end human capital, a better business environment, high levels of military expenditure, and deeper financial markets are important local factors that attract international venture capital. There is also evidence of path dependency and persistence in VC and PE flows, indicating network effects and fixed costs of entry may be at work. Further analysis suggests the internalization of VC and PE is an ongoing story. Prior to the 1990s, VC was primarily a US-only phenomenon. The globalization of IT activities induced the US venture capital industry to mature, and to start exporting its unique skills as VC managers. The US is now a dominant net exporter of deals, though most crossborder deals are still either to or from the US. China has emerged as the dominant net importer, followed by Sweden, Canada, the UK, France and India. For deals outside the US, cross-border participation has been the norm, while US-located deals have been almost exclusively domestic, involving a higher percent of international participation only after 2001. In the past few years, domestic VC capacity has begun to emerge in many countries where it did not exist previously.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14344.

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Date of creation: Sep 2008
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Publication status: published as Joshua Aizenman, Jake Kendall, (2012) "The internationalization of venture capital", Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp.488 - 511
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14344

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  1. Portes, Richard & Rey, Hélène, 1999. "The Determinants of Cross-Border Equity Flows," CEPR Discussion Papers 2225, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  8. Joshua Aizenman & Nancy Marion, 2001. "The Merits of Horizontal versus Vertical FDI in the Presence of Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 8631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Roman Kraussl & Stefan Krause, 2013. "Has Europe Been Catching Up? An Industry Level Analysis of Venture Capital Success over 1985-2009," LSF Research Working Paper Series 13-6, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
  2. Schertler, Andrea & Tykvová, Tereza, 2012. "What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1777-1799.
  3. Marco Da Rin & Thomas F. Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2011. "A survey of venture capital research," NBER Working Papers 17523, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Lerner, Josh & Tåg, Joacim, 2013. "Institutions and Venture Capital," Working Papers 2012:17, Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
  5. Schertler, Andrea & Tykvová, Tereza, 2011. "Venture capital and internationalization," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 423-439, August.
  6. Tykvová, Tereza & Schertler, Andrea, 2011. "Cross-border venture capital flows and local ties: Evidence from developed countries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 36-48, February.
  7. Roman Kraussl & Stefan Krause, 2013. "Has Europe Been Catching Up? An Industry Level Analysis of Venture Capital Success over 1985-2009," CREA Discussion Paper Series 13-6, Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg.
  8. Wang, Lanfang & Wang, Susheng, 2011. "Cross-border venture capital performance: Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 71-97, January.

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