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Do Workers Gain by Sharing? Employee Outcomes under Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing, and Broad-based Stock Options

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  • Douglas Kruse
  • Richard Freeman
  • Joseph Blasi

Abstract

This paper examines how shared capitalism compensation systems - those that link employee pay to company performance - affect diverse employee outcomes. It uses two data sets: the national GSS survey that provides a broad representative view of the extent of the programs; and the NBER Shared Capitalism Project surveys of workers in 14 companies that use shared capitalism programs extensively. We find that greater involvement in the programs is generally linked to greater participation in decisions, higher quality supervision and treatment of employees, more training, higher pay and benefits, greater job security, and higher job satisfaction. We also find positive interactions of shared capitalism with high-performance policies in predicting participation in decisions and overall job satisfaction, and negative interactions of shared capitalism with close supervision in affecting almost all of the outcomes. Overall the results support the idea that workers can gain by sharing, but whether this happens is contingent on other workplace policies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14233.

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Date of creation: Aug 2008
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14233

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  1. Ichniowski, Casey & Shaw, Kathryn & Prennushi, Giovanna, 1997. "The Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Productivity: A Study of Steel Finishing Lines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 291-313, June.
  2. Rooney, Patrick Michael, 1992. "Employee ownership and worker participation : Effects on health and safety," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 323-328, July.
  3. Martin J. Conyon & Richard Freeman, 2002. "Shared Modes of Compensation and Firm Performance: UK Evidence," CEP Discussion Papers dp0560, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  4. Kochan, Thomas A., 1996. "What works at work : overview and assessment," Working papers 3886-96., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  5. Sarah Brown & John G. Sessions, 2003. "Attitudes, Expectations and Sharing," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 17(4), pages 543-569, December.
  6. repec:cdl:indrel:146107 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Michael J. Handel & Maury Gittleman, 1999. "Is There a Wage Payoff to Innovative Work Practices?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_288, Levy Economics Institute.
  8. Saul Estrin & Derek C. Jones, 1992. "The viability of employee-owned firms: Evidence from France," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(2), pages 323-338, January.
  9. Andrew M. Robinson & Hao Zhang, 2005. "Employee Share Ownership: Safeguarding Investments in Human Capital," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 43(3), pages 469-488, 09.
  10. John S. Heywood & Uwe Jirjahn & Georgi Tsertsvadze, 2005. "Getting along with Colleagues - Does Profit Sharing Help or Hurt?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 557-573, November.
  11. Nicholas Wilson & Michael J. Peel, 1991. "The impact on absenteeism and quits of profit-sharing and other forms of employee participation," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(3), pages 454-468, April.
  12. Craig, Ben & Pencavel, John, 1992. "The Behavior of Worker Cooperatives: The Plywood Companies of the Pacific Northwest," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1083-105, December.
  13. Akerlof, George A, 1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(4), pages 543-69, November.
  14. Omar Azfar & Stephan Danninger, 2001. "Profit sharing, employment stability, and wage growth," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(3), pages 619-630, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Green, Colin P. & Heywood, John S., 2010. "Profit sharing and the quality of relations with the boss," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 859-867, October.
  2. Leila Baghdadi & Rihab Bellakhal & Marc-Arthur Diaye, 2012. "Do French firms use financial participation to transfer more risk to their workers?," Documents de recherche 12-10, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
  3. Douglas L. Kruse & Joseph R. Blasi & Rhokeun Park, 2008. "Shared Capitalism in the U.S. Economy? Prevalence, Characteristics, and Employee Views of Financial Participation in Enterprises," NBER Working Papers 14225, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Joseph R. Blasi & Richard B. Freeman & Chris Mackin & Douglas L. Kruse, 2008. "Creating a Bigger Pie? The Effects of Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing, and Stock Options on Workplace Performance," NBER Working Papers 14230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Robert Buchele & Douglas Kruse & Loren Rodgers & Adria Scharf, 2009. "Show Me the Money: Does Shared Capitalism Share the Wealth?," NBER Working Papers 14830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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