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International Comparisons of R&D Expenditure: Does an R&D PPP Make a Difference?

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  • Sean M. Dougherty
  • Robert Inklaar
  • Robert H. McGuckin
  • Bart van Ark

Abstract

Purchasing power parities (PPPs) for R&D expenditure in 19 manufacturing industries are developed for France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom relative to the United States for the years 1997 and 1987. These PPPs are based on R&D input prices for specific cost categories and differ substantially from current practice of comparing R&D expenditure using GDP PPPs and deflators. After taking into account differences in the relative price of R&D labor and materials, separate PPPs for other R&D cost categories are less essential, and a simpler version using GDP PPPs for these other categories should suffice. Our preferred PPPs are used to compare international R&D costs and intensity. The results suggest that the efforts devoted to R&D in each country are more similar across countries than is apparent using the nominal R&D intensities that are currently the norm.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12829.

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Date of creation: Jan 2007
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Publication status: published as International Comparisons of R&D Expenditure: Does an R&D PPP Make a Difference? , Sean M. Dougherty, Robert Inklaar, Robert H. McGuckin, Bart van Ark. in Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches , Berndt and Hulten. 2007
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12829

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  1. Robert H. McGuckin & Bart van Ark & Sean M. Dougherty & Robert Inklaar, 2006. "Appendices to Internationally Comparable Science, Technology and Competitiveness Indicators," Economics Program Working Papers 06-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
  2. Gersbach, Hans & Ark, Bart van, 1994. "Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons," GGDC Research Memorandum 199411, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
  3. MacDonald, A S, 1973. "Exchange Rates for National Expenditure on Research and Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 83(330), pages 477-94, June.
  4. Robert J. Hill, 2004. "Constructing Price Indexes across Space and Time: The Case of the European Union," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(5), pages 1379-1410, December.
  5. David E. Lebow & Jeremy B. Rudd, 2003. "Measurement Error in the Consumer Price Index: Where Do We Stand?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(1), pages 159-201, March.
  6. Robert H. McGuckin & Robert Inklaar & Bart van Ark & Sean M. Dougherty, 2004. "The Structure of Business R&D: Recent Trends and Measurement Implications," Economics Program Working Papers 04-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
  7. Barbara M. Fraumeni & Sumiye Okubo, 2005. "R&D in the National Income and Product Accounts: A First Look at Its Effect on GDP," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring Capital in the New Economy, pages 275-322 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Inklaar, Robert & Wu, Harry & Ark, Bart van, 2003. ""Losing ground" : Japanese labour productivity and unit laboour cost manufacturing in comparison to the U.S," GGDC Research Memorandum 200364, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
  9. Danzon, Patricia M. & Chao, Li-Wei, 2000. "Cross-national price differences for pharmaceuticals: how large, and why?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 159-195, March.
  10. Charles R. Hulten & Edwin R. Dean & Michael J. Harper, 2001. "New Developments in Productivity Analysis," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number hult01-1, October.
  11. Heston, Alan & Summers, Robert, 1996. "International Price and Quantity Comparisons: Potentials and Pitfalls," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 20-24, May.
  12. Charles R. Hulten, 2001. "Total Factor Productivity. A Short Biography," NBER Chapters, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Zvi Griliches, 1984. "R & D, Patents, and Productivity," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril84-1, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Robert H. McGuckin & Robert Inklaar & Bart van Ark & Sean M. Dougherty, 2004. "The Structure of Business R&D: Recent Trends and Measurement Implications," Economics Program Working Papers 04-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
  2. Jakob B. Madsen & EPRU & FRU, 2007. "Semi-Endogenous Versus Schumpeterian Growth Models: Testing The Knowledge Production Function Using International Data," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 26-07, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  3. Sabine Visser, 2007. "R&D in Worldscan," CPB Memorandum 189, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  4. Richard M. H. Suen, 2013. "Research Policy and U.S. Economic Growth," Working papers 2013-18, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.

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