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School Quality and the Black-White Achievement Gap

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  • Eric A. Hanushek
  • Steven G. Rivkin

Abstract

Substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap. Our results, based on both Texas Schools Project (TSP) administrative data and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (ECLS), differ noticeably from other recent analyses of the black-white achievement gap by providing strong evidence that schools have a substantial effect on the differential. The majority of the expansion of the achievement gap with age occurs between rather than within schools, and specific school and peer factors exert a significant effect on the growth in the achievement gap. Unequal distributions of inexperienced teachers and of racial concentrations in schools can explain all of the increased achievement gap between grades 3 and 8. Moreover, non-random sample attrition for school changers and much higher rates of special education classification and grade retention for blacks appears to lead to a significant understatement of the increase in the achievement gap with age within the ECLS and other data sets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12651.

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Date of creation: Oct 2006
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12651

Note: CH ED LS PE HE
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  1. Richard J. Murnane, 1981. "Teacher Mobility Revisited," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 16(1), pages 3-19.
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Cited by:
  1. Bethany Everett & David Rehkopf & Richard Rogers, 2013. "The Nonlinear Relationship Between Education and Mortality: An Examination of Cohort, Race/Ethnic, and Gender Differences," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, Springer, vol. 32(6), pages 893-917, December.
  2. Jennifer Montez & Robert Hummer & Mark Hayward, 2012. "Educational Attainment and Adult Mortality in the United States: A Systematic Analysis of Functional Form," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 315-336, February.
  3. Eric A. Hanushek & Steven G. Rivkin, 2008. "Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement Gap," NBER Working Papers 14211, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Jacob Vigdor & Jens Ludwig, 2007. "Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap," NBER Working Papers 12988, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Dionissi Aliprantis & Daniel Carroll, 2012. "Neighborhood dynamics and the distribution of opportunity," Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland 1212, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  6. Andrew Leigh & Xiaodong Gong, 2008. "Estimating Cognitive Gaps Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians," CEPR Discussion Papers, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University 578, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  7. Richard J. Murnane, 2008. "Educating Urban Children," NBER Working Papers 13791, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Simon Burgess & Deborah Wilson & Adam Briggs & Anete Piebalga, 2008. "Segregation and the Attainment of Minority Ethnic Pupils in England," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK 08/204, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  9. John P. Papay & Richard J. Murnane & John B. Willett, 2008. "The Consequences of High School Exit Examinations for Struggling Low-Income Urban Students: Evidence from Massachusetts," NBER Working Papers 14186, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Timothy N. Bond & Kevin Lang, 2012. "The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results," NBER Working Papers 17960, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Richard Murphy & Felix Weinhardt, 2013. "The Importance of Rank Position," CEP Discussion Papers, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE dp1241, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  12. Richard Murphy & Felix Weinhardt, 2014. "Top of the Class: The Importance of Ordinal Rank," CESifo Working Paper Series 4815, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Peter Arcidiacono & Esteban Aucejo & Ken Spenner, 2012. "What happens after enrollment? An analysis of the time path of racial differences in GPA and major choice," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 1-24, December.

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