International Trade and Cultural Identity
AbstractEconomists emphasize the benefits from free trade due to international specialization, but typically have a narrow measure of what matters to individuals. Critics of free trade, by contrast, focus on the pattern of consumption in society and the nature of goods being consumed, but often fail to take into account the gains from specialization. This paper develops a new framework to study the effects of trade liberalization on cultural identity, which emerges as the result of the interaction of individual consumption choices, similar to a network externality. In a Ricardian model of international trade the paper shows that (i) trade is not Pareto inferior to autarky if the free trade equilibrium is unique, (ii) trade is not Pareto superior to autarky if the world is culturally diverse under free trade, but can be if the world is culturally homogenous, (iii) and when multiple free trade equilibria exist everybody in a country can lose from free trade if that country is culturally homogenous under autarky. Consumers of imported cultural goods tend to gain, while consumers of exported cultural goods tend to lose from trade liberalization.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 10426.
Date of creation: Apr 2004
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Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations;; Economic Integration and Globalization: General
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-06-07 (All new papers)
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