The Roles of Money and Credit in Macroeconomic Analysis
AbstractThis paper considers the implications, for macroeconomic modeling and for monetary policy, of the interrelationships among money, credit and nonfinancial economic activity. Data for the United States since World War II show that the volume of outstanding credit is as closely related to economic activity as is the stock of money, and moreover that neither money nor credit is sufficient to account fully for the effect of financial markets in determining real economic activity. Instead, what appears to matter is an interaction between money and credit. This result is consistent with a macroeconomic modeling strategy that deals explicitly with both the money market and the credit market, and with a monetary policy framework based on the joint use of a money growth target and a credit growth target.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 0831.
Date of creation: Dec 1981
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Friedman, Benjamin M. "The Roles of Money and Credit in Macroeconomic Analysis." Macroeconomics, Prices, and Quantities, edited by James Tobin. Washingtion, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, (1983), pp. 161-199.
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sims, Christopher A, 1980.
"Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 250-57, May.
- Christopher A. Sims, 1980. "Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered," NBER Working Papers 0430, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zellner, Arnold, 1979. "Causality and econometrics," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 9-54, January.
- Stephen M. Goldfeld & Alan S. Blinder, 1972. "Some Implications of Endogenous Stabilization Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 3(3), pages 585-644.
- Tobin, James, 1970.
"Money and Income: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 301-17, May.
- Kareken, John H & Muench, Thomas & Wallace, Neil, 1973. "Optimal Open Market Strategy: The Use of Information Variables," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 156-72, March.
- Bodie, Zvi & Friedman, Benjamin M, 1978.
"Interest Rate Uncertainty and the Value of Bond Call Protection,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(1), pages 19-43, February.
- Bodie, Zvi & Friedman, Benjamin Morton, 1978. "Interest Rate Uncertainty and the Value of Bond Call Protection," Scholarly Articles 4554310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Sargent, Thomas J, 1976. "A Classical Macroeconometric Model for the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(2), pages 207-37, April.
- Mehra, Yash P, 1978. "Is Money Exogenous in Money-Demand Equations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(2), pages 211-28, April.
- Hopewell, Michael H & Kaufman, George G, 1973. "Bond Price Volatility and Term to Maturity: A Generalized Respecification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 749-53, September.
- Brunner, Karl & Meltzer, Allan H, 1972. "Money, Debt, and Economic Activity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(5), pages 951-77, Sept.-Oct.
- Zellner, Arnold & Palm, Franz, 1974.
"Time series analysis and simultaneous equation econometric models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 17-54, May.
- ZELLNER, Arnold & PALM, Franz, . "Time series analysis and simultaneous equation econometric models," CORE Discussion Papers RP -173, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Thomas J. Sargent, 1975.
"The observational equivalence of natural and unnatural rate theories of macroeconomics,"
48, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Sargent, Thomas J, 1976. "The Observational Equivalence of Natural and Unnatural Rate Theories of Macroeconomics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(3), pages 631-40, June.
- Barro, Robert J & Grossman, Herschel I, 1971. "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 82-93, March.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
- Benjamin M. Friedman, 1981. "The Relative Stability of Money and Credit "Velocities" in the United States: Evidence and Some Speculations," NBER Working Papers 0645, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
- Hassan, Faiza & Qayyum, Abdul, 2013. "Modelling the Demand for Bank Loans by Private Business Sector in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 55366, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2014.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.