Emigration Triggers: International Migration of Polish Workers between 1994 and 2009
AbstractThis paper analyzes the emigration propensity of Polish workers between 1994 and 2009. Particular attention is paid to a labour market situation of prospective temporary emigrants, the role of developments on host labour markets and the importance of an open-door policy. The Polish household survey data suggest that temporary emigrants are generally young, more frequently male than female, well educated but with less labour market experience, and have less family commitments than stayers. Other things equal, non-employed are twice that likely to emigrate as employed. The propensity to emigrate varies substantially among the employed. Farmers and employees employed on permanent contracts or in jobs with a high social prestige (managerial or specialist positions) are least probable to leave Poland. The highest propensity to emigrate is observed among temporarily employed or helping family members. The introduction of an open-door policy by majority of the European Economic Area countries after 2004 significantly facilitated emigration from Poland and increased the share of workers leaving to countries with the more liberal immigration regime. The open-door policy within the European Economic Areas amplifies responses of Polish workers to cyclical fluctuations in employment opportunities abroad. Similar changes in the unemployment rate (real wages) abroad lead to more pronounced reaction of temporary emigration or return migration flows, then before the European Union enlargement.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute in its series National Bank of Poland Working Papers with number 90.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 00-919 Warszawa ul. Świętokrzyska 11/21
Phone: (0-22) 653 10 00
Fax: (0-22) 620 85 18
Web page: http://www.nbp.pl/Homen.aspx?f=en/publikacje/materialy_i_studia/informacja_en.html
More information through EDIRC
emigration; EU enlargement; open-door policy; labour market flexibility;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
- C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
- J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-08-09 (All new papers)
- NEP-EUR-2011-08-09 (Microeconomic European Issues)
- NEP-LAB-2011-08-09 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-MIG-2011-08-09 (Economics of Human Migration)
- NEP-TRA-2011-08-09 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Francis Vella, 1998. "Estimating Models with Sample Selection Bias: A Survey," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 127-169.
- Stephen Machin & Panu Pelkonen & Kjell Salvanes, 2008.
"Education and mobility,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
28277, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Machin, Stephen & Pelkonen, Panu & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2008. "Education and Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 3845, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Stephen Machin & Panu Pelkonen & Kjell Salvanes, 2008. "Education and Mobility," CEE Discussion Papers 0100, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
- Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2008.
"Scale, Diversity and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6921, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Anzelika Zaiceva & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2008. "Scale, diversity, and determinants of�labour migration in Europe," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 428-452, Autumn.
- Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "Scale, Diversity, and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 3595, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Stark, Oded & Fan, C. Simon, 2007.
"The Brain Drain, "Educated Unemployment," Human Capital Formation, and Economic Betterment,"
7122, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
- C. Simon Fan & Oded Stark, 2007. "The brain drain, 'educated unemployment', human capital formation, and economic betterment," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 15, pages 629-660, October.
- Oded Stark & C. Simon Fan, 2007. "The Brain Drain, “Educated Unemployment,” Human Capital Formation, and Economic Betterment," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 07-01, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
- Pedersen, Peder J. & Pytliková, Mariola, 2008. "EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment," Working Papers 08-29, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Fan, C. Simon & Stark, Oded, 2007.
"International migration and "educated unemployment","
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 76-87, May.
- Stark, Oded & Fan, C. Simon, 2006. "International Migration and "Educated Unemployment"," Discussion Papers 7126, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
- repec:ese:iserwp:2006-01 is not listed on IDEAS
- Anna Mayda, 2010.
"International migration: a panel data analysis of the determinants of bilateral flows,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 1249-1274, September.
- Anna Maria Mayda, 2007. "International migration: A panel data analysis of the determinants of bilateral flows," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0707, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Mayda, Anna Maria, 2007. "International Migration: A Panel Data Analysis of the Determinants of Bilateral Flows," CEPR Discussion Papers 6289, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Vijverberg, W.P.M., 1989.
"Labor Market Performance As A Determinant Of Migration,"
59, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Vijverberg, Wim P M, 1993. "Labour Market Performance as a Determinant of Migration," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 60(238), pages 143-60, May.
- Michiel Van Leuvensteijn & Ashok Parikh, 2002. "How different are the determinants of population versus labour migration in Germany?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(11), pages 699-703.
- Bob Anderton, 1997. "UK Labour Market Reforms and Sectoral Wage Formation," NIESR Discussion Papers 216, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
- George J. Borjas & Richard B. Freeman, 1992. "Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number borj92-1.
- Lucas, Robert E B, 1985. "Migration amongst the Botswana," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(378), pages 358-82, June.
- Lozano, Fernando A. & Sorensen, Todd A., 2011. "The Labor Market Value to Legal Status," IZA Discussion Papers 5492, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ewa Szymecka).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.