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First-Degree Discrimination by a Duopoly: Pricing and Quality Choice

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  • ENCAOUA, David
  • HOLLANDER, Abraham J.

Abstract

The paper investigates competition in price schedules among vertically differentiated dupolists. First order price discrimination is the unique Nash equilibrium of a sequential game in which firms determine first whether or not to commit to a uniform price, and then simultaneously choose either a single price of a price schedule. Whether the profits earned by both firms are larger or smaller under discrimination than under uniform pricing depends on the quality gap between firms, and on the disparity of consumer preferences. Firms engaged in first degree discrimination choose quality levels that are optimal from a welfare perspective. The paper also reflects on implications of these findings for pricing policies of an incumbent threatened by entry.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1866/530
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 2005-01.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mtl:montde:2005-01

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References

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  1. Hurter, Arthur Jr & Lederer, Phillip J., 1985. "Spatial duopoly with discriminatory pricing," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 541-553, November.
  2. Armstrong, Mark & Vickers, John, 2001. "Competitive Price Discrimination," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 579-605, Winter.
  3. Crampes, Claude & Hollander, Abraham, 1995. "Duopoly and quality standards," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 71-82, January.
  4. Alessandro Acquisti & Hal R. Varian, 2002. "Contidioning Prices on Purchase History," Microeconomics 0210001, EconWPA.
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  8. Greg Shaffer & Z. John Zhang, 2000. "Pay to Switch or Pay to Stay: Preference-Based Price Discrimination in Markets with Switching Costs," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 397-424, 06.
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  10. Shaked, Avner & Sutton, John, 1982. "Relaxing Price Competition through Product Differentiation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(1), pages 3-13, January.
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  15. Aguirre, Inaki & Espinosa, Maria Paz & Macho-Stadler, Ines, 1998. "Strategic entry deterrence through spatial price discrimination," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 297-314, May.
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  17. Hamilton, Jonathan H. & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1992. "Duopoly with spatial and quantity- dependent price discrimination," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 175-185, June.
  18. Uri Ronnen, 1991. "Minimum Quality Standards, Fixed Costs, and Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(4), pages 490-504, Winter.
  19. Anindya Ghose & Vidyanand Choudhary & Tridas Mukhopadhyay & Uday Rajan, 2002. "Personalized Pricing and Quality Differentiation on the Internet," Review of Marketing Science Working Papers 2-1-1005, Berkeley Electronic Press.
  20. Jean-Marc Bonnisseau & Rim Lahmandi-Ayed, 2004. "Vertical differentiation with non-uniform consumers¡ distribution," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques b04114, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  21. Lederer, Phillip J & Hurter, Arthur P, Jr, 1986. "Competition of Firms: Discriminatory Pricing and Location," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 623-40, May.
  22. Jaskold Gabszewicz, J. & Thisse, J. -F., 1979. "Price competition, quality and income disparities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 340-359, June.
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  24. Stole, Lars A, 1995. "Nonlinear Pricing and Oligopoly," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 529-62, Winter.
  25. Vidyanand Choudhary & Anindya Ghose & Tridas Mukhopadhyay & Uday Rajan, 2005. "Personalized Pricing and Quality Differentiation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(7), pages 1120-1130, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Stefano Colombo, 2009. "Pricing Policy and Partial Collusion," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Economia e Finanza ief0090, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  2. Colombo, Stefano, 2009. "On the effects of selective below-cost pricing in a vertical differentiation model," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 3(33), pages 1-13.
  3. Stefano Colombo, 2011. "Spatial price discrimination in the unidirectional Hotelling model with elastic demand," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 102(2), pages 157-169, March.

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