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Décentralisation institutionnelle et dynamiques économiques localisées. Discordances brésiliennes

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  • Yves-André Fauré

    ()
    (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
    GED, Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV)

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    Abstract

    L'étude montre l'étendue des moyens, tant juridiques que matériels et symboliques dont disposent les municípios (communes), échelon le plus décentralisé de l'appareil institutionnel brésilien, pour orienter et soutenir l'activité économique locale ou pour peser sur les effets localisés de dynamiques économiques d'échelle supra-municipale. Ces dynamiques sont cependant étroitement conditionnées par les vocations économiques régionales, elles-mêmes largement héritières de modes d'exploitation passés et qui maintiennent de profonds contrastes entre les différents espaces brésiliens. La densification industrielle du pays est le résultat de politiques centrales et volontaristes qui ont en outre accentué, dans bien des cas, la concentration spatiale des activités. Les diverses tentatives de rééquilibrage interrégional des activités, pour l'essentiel conduites depuis le sommet de la Fédération, n'ont obtenu que des résultats très modestes. Le paysage productif brésilien est complété par de nombreux pôles locaux d'activité dont les plus remarquables doivent leur essor et leur spécialisation éventuelle à des initiatives strictement privées et souvent antérieures à l'affermissement du régime municipal. Les phénomènes contemporains de déconcentration industrielle sont davantage commandés par l'évolution économique – mondialisation, cycles sectoriels, recherche de coûts de production, et notamment de main-d'œuvre, bon marché, déséconomies externes des grandes agglomérations, etc. – que par des programmes municipaux d'attraction des entreprises et des investissements. Et quand il s'agit de grandes opérations de localisation de firmes ce sont bien plutôt l'Union, pour cause de plus grande capacité financière et les Etats fédérés pour cause de capacités fiscales qui conduisent le jeu. Ces constats confirment une déconnexion tendancielle entre les conditions d'une vivace décentralisation institutionnelle qui caractérise les communes brésiliennes et les fondements du «développement local » qui semblent reposer sur des facteurs et mécanismes largement hors de portée des appareils administratifs et des pouvoirs publics municipaux. The study shows the scope of the legal, material and symbolic means that municipalities (municípios) dispose of in Brazil for orienting and lending support to local economic activities and for influencing the local effects of economic dynamics situated at supra-local levels. These dynamics are deeply conditioned by regional specializations, which are largely a legacy of history and which contribute to maintaining in place strong regional contrasts. Industrial density in Brazil is a result of federal policies, which also had the effect in many cases of reinforcing the spatial concentration of industry. The various attempts to achieve a more balanced regional distribution of economic activities, undertaken for the most part by the central government, have obtained only modest results. The productive landscape of Brazil also includes numerous localized industrial centers, of which the most remarkable owe their development to private initiatives, often undertaken before the current municipal regime was in place. Likewise, current trends in industrial dispersal are more the result of the evolution of capitalism —globalization, sectoral cycles, strategies to reduce production costs through cheap labor especially, rising diseconomies of large agglomerations, etc.— than the result of municipal policies designed to attract firms and investment. Moreover, the central and states governments are usually in charge of negotiating large investment projects, due to their superior financial and fiscal capacities. These observations confirm a disconnection between seemingly favorable conditions for a robust decentralization that characterize Brazilian towns and cities, on one hand, and the foundations of local development, on the other hand, which seem to rely on factors and mechanisms largely beyond the reach of municipal administrations and elected officials. (Full text in French)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 99.

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    Length: 19 pages
    Date of creation: Jun 2004
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:99

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