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Démocratie électorale et lutte contre la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne : un modèle d'analyse

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Cette étude offre une esquisse de cadre théorique contribuant à étayer les arguments selon lesquels la démocratie électorale contribue fortement à améliorer le bien-être des populations dans les pays où elle est adoptée contrairement aux systèmes dictatoriaux. Ce cadre théorique a permis notamment d'appréhender les facteurs déterminants qui feraient des élections des armes puissantes pour contraindre les gouvernements ou les élus locaux à être plus attentifs aux besoins des plus démunis et à adopter des politiques à même d'élargir, pour ces derniers, les opportunités sociales et économiques. Les analyses du processus démocratique subsaharien ont fait ressortir que ces conditions jugées nécessaires sont loin d'être satisfaites au sud du Sahara. Ainsi, les élections ne seraient pas encore un puissant moyen pour les populations subsahariennes de contraindre leurs gouvernements à être plus attentifs aux besoins des pauvres. D'où la nécessité que tous les intervenants nationaux et internationaux dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pauvreté soient davantage regardant sur ces aspects qui privent notamment les plus démunis de leur pouvoir de sanction des élus à travers les urnes et, par conséquent, favorisent la mauvaise utilisation ou le détournement des ressources destinées au développement socio-économique. This article give an esquire of theoretical framework which confirms that democratic governance contribute very much to increasing level of well-being in a country contrarily to dictatorial governance. This theoretical model allowed us to apprehend decisive factors with those elections would be powerful arms to constrain governments to pay more attention to destitute needs and to adopt policies that would be able to widen social and economic opportunities. Analysis of democratic process in sub-saharan countries shows that these determinant factors are far from being sufficient in this part of the world. Thus, elections are not yet powerful arms for sub-saharan populations to constrain theirs governments to be more careful of poor needs. Hence it is necessary that all national and international interveners within framework of fighting against poverty be more and more careful with these aspects those deprive poor of their sanction power against governments through vote and, consequently, favour embezzlement and bad using of resources intended for socio-economic development. (Full text inFrench)

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 88.

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Length: 14 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:88

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  1. Adama Zerbo, 2003. "Pauvreté urbaine au Burkina-Faso : une exploitation de la complémentarité empirique des approches de l'utilité et des capabilités," Documents de travail 80, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
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