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Impacts des envois de fonds sur la pauvreté aux Comores

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  • Imani Younoussa

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

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    Abstract

    Les envois de fonds à destination des Comores représentent 24 pour cent du PIB. Ils sont de loin, la première ressource extérieure des Comores, devant l’Aide publique au développement et les investissements directs étrangers. Cette étude se fixe comme objectif de mesurer l’impact des envois de fonds extérieurs sur la pauvreté monétaire aux Comores. Les études sur les envois de fonds ont développé différentes méthodologies pour mesurer l’impact sur la pauvreté. Dans cette étude, nous allons considérer les envois de fonds comme un revenu potentiel de substitution. Pour cela, nous allons faire deux hypothèses qui pourraient être traduites par les deux questions suivantes (i) Que serait le niveau de la pauvreté en l’absence d’une migration et d’envois de fonds ? (ii) Que serait le niveau de la pauvreté, en présence d’une migration et des envois de fonds (la situation réelle) ? La variation des indices de pauvreté calculés à partir de ces deux situations va mesurer l’impact des envois de fonds sur la pauvreté monétaire. La conclusion de l’étude est la suivante : les envois de fonds contribuent à une réduction des indices de pauvreté. L’impact sur les inégalités est mitigé. L’incidence de pauvreté (P0) baisse de -3,5 pour cent, sous l’effet des envois de fonds. La profondeur (P1) et la sévérité (P2) baissent respectivement de -7,4 pour cent, et -5,8 pour cent avec les envois de fonds. Les envois de fonds ont plus d’impact sur la pauvreté, pour les catégories des ménages suivantes : celles vivant en milieu rural, celles vivant en Grande Comore, celles dirigées par les femmes, les chômeurs et les inactifs. On observe alors que, ce sont les catégories des ménages qui bénéficient le plus d’envois de fonds en termes de dépenses par tête, qui enregistrent le plus d’impact sur la réduction de la pauvreté. The Comoros remittances represent 24 percent of the GDP. They are by far, the first external resource of the Comoros, in front of the Public Aid and the foreign direct investments. The target of this study, is to measure the impact of the remittances on monetary poverty in Comoros. The studies on remittances developed various methodologies to measure the impact on poverty. In this study, we will regard the remittances as a potential substitution income. For that, we will make two assumptions which can be translated by the two following questions (i) Which would be the level of poverty in the absence of a migration and remittances ? (ii) What would be poverty, in the presence of migration and remittances (the real situation) ? The variation of the poverty indices calculated from these two situations, will measure the impact of the remittances on monetary poverty. The conclusion of this study is as follows: the remittances contribute to a reduction of the poverty indices. The impact on the inequalities is mitigated. The poverty incidence (P0) drops by -3,5 percent, under the effect of the remittances. The depth (P1) and severity (P2) drop respectively by -7,4 percent, and -5,8 percent with the remittances. The remittances have more impact on poverty, for the following categories of the households: those alive in rural area, those alive into Grande Comore, those directed by the women, the unemployeds and the inactive households. We observed that, the households which are received more remittances in terms of expenditure per capita, which records benefit most impact on the reduction of poverty. (Full text in french)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 170.

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    Length: 22 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:170

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