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Envois de fonds : un contrat implicite entre le migrant et sa famille

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  • Imani Younoussa

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

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    Abstract

    Cette étude utilise un modèle théorique de contrat implicite, Glystos (2000) pour mettre en évidence certaines réalités sociales sur les envois de fonds aux Comores. Dans un premier temps, l’étude souligne le fondement social des envois de fonds aux Comores, notamment l’importance du « grand mariage » dans la décision de migration. Partant du principe que la décision de migration et d’envois des fonds peut être considéré comme un contrat implicite entre le migrant et la famille restée dans le pays d’origine, le montant des envois de fonds est la résultante des négociations entre les deux parties. Les envois de fonds sont considérés ici comme une donnée endogène qui sera déterminée par l’équilibre entre l’offre du migrant et la demande de la famille bénéficiaire en matière d’envois de fonds. La préférence pour le présent du migrant se traduira par une destruction de son épargne ou un endettement. Quand à la préférence pour le présent du bénéficiaire, elle se traduira par une demande excédentaire de la famille en envois de fonds. A l’issue de cette étude appliquée au cas des Comores, il est apparu que le migrant et le bénéficiaire des envois de fonds ont une préférence pour le présent, et cela quelque soit la valeur de la propension marginale à consommer du migrant. Ce qui veut dire que d’une part, le migrant va détruire son épargne (va s’endetter) pour subvenir aux besoins de la famille et aux impératifs sociaux. D’autre part, la famille bénéficiaire des envois de fonds demandera plus de fonds que le minimum indispensable. Ces résultats théoriques reflètent une situation sociale bien connue aux Comores, notamment l’obligation du migrant de financer les impératifs sociaux et familiaux, quelque soit son niveau de revenu dans le pays d’accueil. This study uses an implicit contract theory, Glystos (2000) to highlight certain social realities on the remittances to Comoros . Initially, the study underlines the social base of the remittances to Comoros, in particular the importance of the “grand mariage” in the decision of migration. On the basis of the principle that the decision of migration and remittances can be regarded as an implicit contract between the migrant and the family remained in the country, the amount of the remittances is resulted of the negotiations between the two parts. The remittances are considered here as an endogenous, which will be determined by the equilibrium between remittances supply of the migrant and remittances demand of the family. The preference for the present of the migrant will result in a destruction of its saving or a debt. The preference for the present of the recipient, it results in a surplus request of the family for remittances. In this study, we applied implicit contract theory to the Comoros, it appeared that the migrant and the remittances recipient have a preference for the present, and that some is the value of the migrant marginal propensity to consume. What want to say that, on the one hand, the migrant will destroy its saving (will be involved in debt) to provide for the urgent social needs and the family requirement. In part, the family will require more remittances than the essential minimum. These theoretical results reflect a well-known social condition in the Comoros, in particular the obligation of the migrant to finance the requirements social and family , some is its level of income in the host country. (Full text in french)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 169.

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    Length: 12 pages
    Date of creation: Aug 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:169

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    1. Jean-Claude Rouveyran & Ahmed Djabiri, 1968. "Réflexions sur le Dola N'Kou ou Grand Mariage comorien," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 9(33), pages 95-127.
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