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Différence de performance sociale des institutions de microfinance au Mali

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  • Yaya Koloma

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Basée sur une vision welfariste – bien-être des bénéficiaires –, la présente étude appréhende une forme réduite de la performance sociale au Mali, à partir de la dimension depth of outreach issue des quatre principaux indicateurs SPI de Cerise. Elle tente de rendre compte de la stratification des structures de microfinance selon leurs objectifs fondateurs de ciblage et donc en fonction des segments de pauvreté des bénéficiaires. Utilisant une méthode de classification en termes de quintile de pauvreté– très pauvres, pauvres, non pauvres vulnérables, non pauvres supérieurs et riches –, et à partir des données de l’enquête « microfinance et réduction de la pauvreté au Mali » recueillies de décembre 2007 à janvier 2008 au Mali, l’analyse conduit à trois principaux résultats. Premièrement, au niveau global, les résultats trouvent que parmi les différentes structures de microfinance, les institutions de type CVECA présentent le pourcentage le plus élevé de plus pauvres (47,5 pour cent), viennent ensuite les institutions mutualistes (18,1 pour cent), les autres formes (11,8 pour cent) et les institutions de crédit solidaire (5,3 pour cent). Deuxièmement, l’analyse en termes de durée d’adhésion montre que les nouveaux bénéficiaires des services microfinanciers des CVECA sont concentrés dans les trois premières classes de bien-être, c’est-à-dire les non pauvres. Dans les autres structures, la tendance serait la même, notamment pour les structures mutualistes. Troisièmement, l’analyse selon le genre des bénéficiaires met en évidence que la proportion des femmes bénéficiaires est légèrement plus importante (21,1 pour cent) dans les quintiles les plus pauvres comparativement aux hommes (19,5 pour cent) et les institutions de type crédit solidaire, qui devraient préalablement et essentiellement fournir les femmes, montreraient une certaine limite en termes de ciblage. Ce sont plutôt les CVECA, qui ne sont par nature pas destinées spécifiquement aux femmes, qui concentrent une part importante de femmes pauvres. La mise en relation de ces résultats avec les objectifs originaux montrent que les institutions de type CVECA sont relativement plus efficientes. Based on a welfariste approach – beneficiaries’ wellbeing –, this paper considers a slight form of social performance in Mali. It results from a depth of outreach dimension among the main SPI four indicators of Cerise. The paper attempts to account for the stratification of microfinance institutions according to their founding goals in terms of targeting, and therefore, in terms of segments of poverty among the beneficiaries. The study is focused on survey data "Microfinance and Poverty Reduction in Mali” collected from December 2007 to January 2008 in Mali, and uses a classification method of quintiles of poverty - very poor, poor, vulnerable non-poor, not poor superior and rich. The analysis leads to three main results. First, globally, results found that, among the different structures of microfinance institutions, CVECA have the highest percentage of poor (47.5 percent), followed by mutual institutions (18.1 percent), other (11.8 percent) and institutions of social credit (5.3 percent). Secondly, the analysis in terms of membership duration also highlights the new microfinance services beneficiaries of CVECA are concentrated in the first three classes of well-being, i.e. the non-poor. In the other structures, the trend is the same, especially for mutual structures. Thirdly, the gender analysis of beneficiaries reveals that the proportion of women is slightly higher (21.1 percent) in the poorest quintile compared to men (19.5 percent), and social credit institutions, which should first and foremost provide women, show a certain failure in terms of targeting. Therefore, the CVECA institutions, which are by nature not designed specifically for women, present a large proportion of poor women. The linking of these results with the original objectives shows that the CVECA institutions are relatively more efficient.(Full text in french)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 157.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:157

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  1. Copestake, James, 2007. "Mainstreaming Microfinance: Social Performance Management or Mission Drift?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1721-1738, October.
  2. Cécile Lapenu & Manfred Zeller & Martin Greely & Renée Chao-Béroff & Koenraad Verhagen, 2004. "Performances sociales : Une raison d'être des institutions de microfinance et pourtant encore peu mesurées. Quelques pistes," Mondes en développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 126(2), pages 51-68.
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