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Profits, efficience et genre des micro-entreprises urbaines à Madagascar. Existe-t-il une courbe de Kuznets ?

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Author Info

  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Fondée sur les enquêtes prioritaires de Madagascar de 2001 et 2005, la présente étude examine l’efficience économique des micro-entreprises urbaines selon le genre, en vue de contribuer à mieux comprendre la féminisation de l’urbanisation de la pauvreté. Premièrement, les fonctions de profits montrent que l’élasticité des profits par rapport à l’emploi est plus importante que pour le capital, et que la sensibilité par rapport aux deux facteurs de production a crû au cours de la période. Cependant, l’élasticité-emploi des profits est plus élevée dans les micro-entreprises féminines. En outre, les profits sont influencés par le mode de gestion, la localisation dans les grandes villes, et les caractéristiques des micro-entrepreneurs : différentiel de profits en faveur des micro-entreprises masculines et rôle majeur de l’instruction, notamment dans les micro-entreprises féminines. Si les produits marginaux du travail des micro-entreprises masculines et féminines sont assez comparables, le produit marginal du capital est beaucoup plus élevé dans les secondes que dans les premières. En même temps, dans les micro-entreprises féminines, le produit marginal du travail relatif a décliné, alors que l’inverse a prévalu en ce qui concerne le produit marginal relatif du capital. Deuxièmement, les frontières stochastiques de profits, fondées sur les modèles exponentiel et gamma, produisent des coefficients assez proches de ceux qui résultent des estimations par les moindres carrés ordinaires. Mais, la part de la variance de l’inefficience économique dans la variance totale est beaucoup plus importante pour les micro-entreprises gérées par un homme, que pour celles ayant une femme à leur tête, et a fortement augmenté au cours de la période. En fait, les taux d’efficience économique sont assez faibles, notamment en 2005 où, en moyenne, les micro-entreprises réalisent seulement un peu plus de la moitié des profits qu’elles pourraient obtenir si elles étaient pleinement efficientes. En outre, la situation des micro-entreprises féminines s’est dégradée relativement aux micro-entreprises masculines, le taux d’efficience économique des premières ayant décliné de 28,5 pour cent entre 2001 et 2005, contre 21,5 pour cent pour les micro-entreprises ayant un homme à leur tête – modèle gamma. Dans ce contexte, le taux d’efficience économique des micro-entreprises urbaines s’élève jusqu’à un certain seuil des profits, et décroît par la suite, ce qui évoque la célèbre courbe de Kuznets. En définitive, il semblerait que le déclin absolu et relatif de l’efficience économique des micro-entreprises urbaines gérées par les femmes puisse constituer un autre élément d’explication de la féminisation de l’urbanisation de la pauvreté, conjointement avec la détérioration des autres dimensions du marché du travail. Based on the Madagascar priority surveys of 2001 and 2005, the study examines the economic efficiency of urban micro-enterprises by gender, in order to gain a better understanding of the feminization of the urbanization of poverty. First, profit functions show that the elasticity of profits with respect to employment is more important than the capital, and the sensitivity to the two factors of production has increased during the period. However, the employment elasticity of profits is higher in women's micro-enterprises. In addition, profits are influenced by the mode of management, the localization in large cities, and the characteristics of micro-entrepreneurs: differential of profits in favor of men’s micro-enterprises and significant role of education, especially in women’s micro-enterprises. If the marginal product of labour of micro-enterprises managed by men and women are quite comparable, the marginal product of capital is much higher in the latter than in the former. At the same time, in micro-enterprises managed by women, the relative marginal product of labour has declined, while the opposite prevailed with regard to the relative marginal product of capital. Second, the stochastic frontier profit, based on the exponential and gamma models, produce coefficients rather close to those which result from the ordinary least squares estimates. But the share of the variance of the economic inefficiency in the total variance is much more important for micro-enterprises managed by a man than for those having a woman at their head, and has greatly increased during the period. In fact, the rates of economic efficiency are quite low, especially in 2005 where, on average, micro-enterprises get only slightly more than half of the profits they could obtain if they were fully efficient. In addition, the situation of women's micro-enterprises has deteriorated relative to men's micro-enterprises, the economic efficiency of the first having declined by 28.5 percent between 2001 and 2005, against 21.5 per cent for micro-enterprises with a man at their head – gamma model. In this context, the rate of economic efficiency of urban micro-enterprises rises until a certain threshold of the profits, and decrease thereafter, suggesting the famous Kuznets curve. Ultimately, it seems that the decline in absolute and relative economic efficiency of urban micro-enterprises managed by women can be an additional explanation of the feminization of the urbanization of poverty, together with the deterioration of other dimensions of the labour market. (Full text in french)

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 148.

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Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2009
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Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:148

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