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Scolarisation et travail des enfants : Un modèle économétrique à régimes endogènes appliqué à Madagascar - 2001-2005

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  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

L’étude examine l’effet de la scolarisation sur la durée du travail des enfants de 6-14 ans à Madagascar en 2001 et 2005, à l’aide d’un modèle économétrique à régimes prenant en compte l’endogénéité de la fréquentation scolaire. Premièrement, le temps de travail des enfants scolarisés pourrait constituer une variable d’ajustement conjoncturel, liée à la fluctuation des gains des adultes, tandis que celui des non-scolarisés est susceptible de revêtir une dimension plus structurelle, conditionnée par la nécessité de dépasser le seuil de subsistance. Plusieurs éléments d’analyse semblent justifier cette hypothèse : (i) le temps de travail des enfants scolarisés diminue avec l’élévation des revenus par tête des adultes du ménage, contrairement à ceux qui ne fréquentent pas l’école ; (ii) le statut du travail du chef de ménage influence principalement la variation de la durée du travail des enfants non-scolarisés ; (iii) la durée du travail des enfants scolarisés décroît systématiquement avec l’élévation du niveau d’instruction du chef de ménage, un phénomène beaucoup moins perceptible pour les enfants non-scolarisés ; (iv) quels que soient le régime et l’année, les enfants de 10-14 ans travaillent plus que ceux de 6-9 ans, tout comme les garçons, comparativement aux filles ; (v) le temps de travail des enfants scolarisés croît avec la dimension des ménages, alors que cette évolution ne concerne pas ceux qui ne fréquentent pas l’école ; (vi) indépendamment des régimes et des périodes, le temps de travail est plus élevé en milieu rural, ainsi que dans les provinces de Toliara et d’Antananarivo. Deuxièmement, des simulations suggèrent d’importants bénéfices potentiels en termes de temps de travail. D’une part, les enfants scolarisés travaillent potentiellement 121,5 et 84,1 heures de moins par mois, respectivement, en 2001 et 2005, comparativement à une hypothétique situation de non-scolarisation. D’autre part, si les enfants qui ne fréquentent pas l’école avaient été scolarisés, ils auraient potentiellement travaillé 52,5 et 96,5 heures de moins par mois, respectivement, en 2005 et 2001. En réalité, les bénéfices potentiels moyens ont décliné au cours de la période, en partie, parce que la proportion et le temps d’activité des enfants travailleurs et allant à l’école ont fortement augmenté, en particulier dans les provinces d’Antananarivo et de Toliara. En définitive, la recherche montre que la scolarisation peut générer des gains potentiels importants en termes de réduction du temps de travail des enfants. The study examines the effect of schooling on child labour hours of aged 6-14 years in Madagascar in 2001 and 2005, using an endogenous switching regression model taking into account the endogeneity of the household decision of sending a child to school. Firstly, the working time of enrolled children could constitute a short-term adjustment variable, dependent on the fluctuation of the incomes of the adults, while that of not-enrolled children could have a more structural dimension, conditioned by the need for exceeding the level of subsistence. Several elements of analysis seem to justify this assumption: (i) the hours of work of enrolled children decreases with the rise in the incomes per capita of the adults of the household, contrary to those which do not attend school ; (ii) the labour statute of the household head influences mainly the variation of the working time of the not-enrolled children; (iii) the labour hours of the children enrolled in school decrease systematically with the rise in the educational level of the household head, a phenomenon much less perceptible for the not-enrolled children; (iv) whatever the regime and the year, the children of aged 10-14 years work more than those of aged 6-9 years, just like the boys, compared to the girls; (v) the working time of children with education grows with the size of the households, whereas this evolution does not relate to those which do not attend school; (vi) independently of the regimes and the periods, the working time is higher in rural areas, like in the provinces of Toliara and Antananarivo. Secondly, the simulations suggest important potential benefit in terms of working time. On the one hand, the children enrolled in school potentially work 121.5 and 84.1 hours less per month, respectively, in 2001 and 2005, compared to a hypothetical situation of not-schooling. In addition, if the children who do not attend school had been enrolled, they would have potentially worked 52.5 and 96.5 hours less per month, respectively, in 2005 and 2001. Actually, the average potential benefit declined during the period, partly because the proportion and the time of activity of children working and going to school strongly increased, in particular in the provinces of Antananarivo and Toliara. In conclusion, the study shows that schooling can generate important potential profits in terms of reduction of children labours hours. (Full text in french)

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 134.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:134

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  1. Shafiq, M. Najeeb, 2007. "Household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 946-966, December.
  2. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1984. "Tobit models: A survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 3-61.
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  5. Amin, Shahina & Quayes, Shakil & Rives, Janet M., 2006. "Market work and household work as deterrents to schooling in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1271-1286, July.
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  8. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
  9. Christopher Heady, 2000. "What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa00/7, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
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Cited by:
  1. F. Blanco & M. G. Breglia & L. Guarcello & C. Valdivia, 2008. "Violence against children:preliminary evidence from Colombia, El Salvador, Cambodia and Ecuador," UCW Working Paper 41, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).

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