Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Les normes fondamentales du travail contribuent-elles à réduire les inégalités ?

Contents:

Author Info

  • Rémi Bazillier

    (TEAM – Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne)

  • Nicolas Sirven

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Cet article propose une investigation empirique des liens qu’entretiennent normes sociales et inégalité de revenus. Dans un premier temps, un indice de normes sociales du travail (travail des enfants, travail forcé, discrimination, liberté syndicale, conventions OIT) est déterminé. Aucun lien n’est trouvé a priori avec l’inégalité. Ceci s’explique par la différence entre la ratification des traités internationaux sur les normes sociales et la mise en place effective de ces normes par les pays signataires. C’est pourquoi, dans un second temps les normes sociales sont endogénéisées au moyen de variables instrumentales. Un nouvel indicateur de normes effectives est obtenu comme un output de l’efficacité du système politique et juridique. Il est en effet plus probable que les pays qui jouissent de meilleures institutions soient plus aptes à mettre en place effectivement des normes sociales. L’endogénéisation des normes sociales permet de mettre en évidence l’existence d’une courbe de Kuznets entre les normes et les inégalités de revenu pour 90 pays sur la période 1990-2001. Les normes sociales sont ainsi mobilisées comme facteur explicatif intermédiaire pour interpréter la courbe de Kuznets. This study empirically investigates the impact of core labour standards on income inequality for a range of 90 countries from 1990 to 2001. We focus on the four core labour standards (prohibition of child labour, freedom of association and collective bargaining, prohibition of discrimination, and prohibition of forced labour) defined by ILO and OECD. The number of ILO conventions ratified is added to the four previous variables with the aim to compute a synthetic index of labour standards by means of a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). This index is then inserted as an independent variable in an econometric model to test for its relationships with the Gini index. No significant correlation is found among the different econometric specifications. One of the reasons pointed out is that there is a difference between norms de jure and de facto. In other words, the exogeneity of the index does not distinguish countries that implement effective social norms from those that just ratify the treaties. We actually assume that the effective implementation of core labour standards depends on the quality of the country’s political and legal systems. The endogeneity bias in the first step models is corrected using instrumental variables in a TSLS model. We found that the relationship between the new endogenous index of core labour standards and income inequality follows a inversed ‘U’ shaped curve. This result let us think of a social Kuznets curve. (Full text in french)

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://ged.u-bordeaux4.fr/ceddt123.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 123.

as in new window
Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:123

Contact details of provider:

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Papanek, Gustav F. & Kyn, Oldrich, 1986. "The effect on income distribution of development, the growth rate and economic strategy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 55-65, September.
  2. Bourguignon, F. & Morrisson, C., 1990. "Income distribution, development and foreign trade : A cross-sectional analysis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1113-1132, September.
  3. Daniele Checchi & Cecilia García Peñalosa, 2005. "Labour Market Institutions and the Personal Distribution of Income in the OECD," UNIMI - Research Papers in Economics, Business, and Statistics unimi-1009, Universitá degli Studi di Milano.
  4. Martin Rama, 2002. "Globalization and Workers in Developing Countries," Economics Study Area Working Papers 41, East-West Center, Economics Study Area.
  5. César Calderón & Alberto Chong & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 2005. "Labor Market Regulations and Income Inequality: Evidence for a Panel of Countries," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Jorge Restrepo & Andrea Tokman R. & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Series Edi (ed.), Labor Markets and Institutions, edition 1, volume 8, chapter 7, pages 221-279 Central Bank of Chile.
  6. Brown, D.K. & Dearorff, A.V. & Stern, R.M., 1993. "International Labor Standards and Trade: A Theoretical Analysis," Working Papers 333, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  7. Gudrun Biffl & Joseph E. Isaac, 2002. "How Effective are the ILO's Labour Standards under Globalisation?," WIFO Working Papers 178, WIFO.
  8. Thomas I. Palley, 2005. "Labour standards, democracy and wages: some cross-country evidence," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(7), pages 883-898.
  9. Wood, Adrian, 1997. "Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 33-57, January.
  10. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
  11. Alvaro Forteza & Martín Rama, 2000. "Labor Market "Rigidity" and the Success of Economic Reforms Across more than One Hundred Countries," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0600, Department of Economics - dECON.
  12. Ahluwalia, Montek S., 1976. "Inequality, poverty and development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 307-342, December.
  13. Squire, Lyn & Suthiwart-Narueput, Sethaput, 1997. "The Impact of Labor Market Regulations," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 119-43, January.
  14. Milanovic, Branko, 1995. "Poverty, inequality, and social policy in transition economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1530, The World Bank.
  15. Campano, Fred & Salvatore, Dominick, 1988. "Economic development, income inequality and Kuznets' U-shaped hypothesis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 265-280.
  16. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Alvaro Forteza & Martin Rama, 2006. "Labor Market 'Rigidity' and the Success of Economic Reforms Across More Than 100 Countries," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 75-105.
  18. Anand, Sudhir & Kanbur, S. M. R., 1993. "The Kuznets process and the inequality--development relationship," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 25-52, February.
  19. Rémi Bazillier, 2004. "Core labour standards and economic growth," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla04088, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  20. Matthew Higgins & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1999. "Explaining Inequality the World Round: Cohort Size, Kuznets Curves, andOpenness," NBER Working Papers 7224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Harrison, Ann E & Leamer, Edward, 1997. "Labor Markets in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Research," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages S1-19, July.
  22. Michael Greenacre, 2008. "Correspondence analysis of raw data," Economics Working Papers 1112, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jul 2009.
  23. Thomas I. Palley, 2004. "The economic case for international labour standards," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(1), pages 21-36, January.
  24. Jha, Sailesh K., 1996. "The Kuznets curve: A reassessment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 773-780, April.
  25. David BESCOND & Anne CHÂTAIGNIER & Farhad MEHRAN, 2003. "Seven indicators to measure decent work: An international comparison," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 142(2), pages 179-212, 06.
  26. Maskus, Keith E., 1997. "Should core labor standards be imposed through international trade policy?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1817, The World Bank.
  27. Chau, Nancy H & Kanbur, Ravi, 2001. "The Adoption of Labour Standards Conventions: Who, When and Why?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2904, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. repec:laf:wpaper:201102 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Jean-Marie Cardebat & Alexandru Dimitrescu, 2011. "Social Responsibility of the countries and their international trade : A gravitational approach," Larefi Working Papers 1102, Larefi, Université Bordeaux 4.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:123. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.