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Le dynamisme des micro, petites et moyennes entreprises (MPME). Une étude empirique de 500 unités dans l’Etat de Rio de Janeiro (Brésil)

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  • François Combarnous

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

  • Yves-André Fauré

    (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Instituto de Economia (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro), IFReDE-GRES, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Cette étude se propose d’explorer les caractéristiques et les facteurs de dynamisme de micro, petites et moyennes entreprises (MPME) de quatre villes de l’intérieur de l’Etat de Rio de Janeiro au Brésil. Les modifications intervenues ces dernières années dans les conditions de la production et des échanges, tant au plan des activités nationales qu’au plan du commerce international ont investi les entreprises d’une responsabilité accrue dans la poursuite des processus de croissance et de développement, souvent au prix d’un reflux des initiatives publiques. La question se pose de savoir si le tissu des innombrables petites unités qui composent un peu partout dans le monde l’essentiel de l’univers entrepreneurial – particulièrement dans les pays du Sud (97% des entreprises au Brésil) – est susceptible de contribuer au succès de ces réorientations. Sous quelles conditions peuvent-elles à la fois participer à ces mouvements et en tirer partie ? Les données traitées portent sur 500 entreprises de taille modeste regroupées successivement en huit types d’activité puis en deux grands secteurs (secondaire et tertiaire). La notion de dynamisme, explicitement revisitée à l’occasion de l’étude, fait référence aux processus dans lesquels sont engagées les unités, plus qu’aux résultats auxquels elles parviennent. Elle se caractérise de fait par son aspect multidimensionnel. Le recours au modèle de classification ascendante hiérarchique permet de distinguer nettement au sein de l’échantillon les entreprises qualifiées de dynamiques, sur la base de 31 critères constitutifs de cet état. Un modèle économétrique à choix discret permet ensuite d’identifier les variables susceptibles d’être à l’origine de ce dynamisme. Si quelques facteurs favorisent la vitalité des entreprises quel que soit leur secteur d’appartenance (taille, utilisation de services extérieurs, participation à un organisme professionnel), d’autres sont propres à chaque secteur. Des spécificités sectorielles apparaissent également dans l’étude des relations entre le dynamisme des entreprises, leur taille et les éventuels appuis qu’elles obtiennent auprès d’un dispositif ou d’un programme. Les liens entre le dynamisme des unités, leurs modes de financement, leur contexte institutionnel et les difficultés qu’elles rencontrent sont enfin explorés. This study proposes to explore the characteristics and factors of micro and small enterprises dynamism in four cities of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. The recent modifications regarding local as international production and exchanges conditions invested enterprises with an increased responsibility for the continuation of growth and development process, often at the expense of a decline in public initiatives. The question arises of knowing if the broad magnitudes of micro and small enterprises – particularly in developing countries (97% of brazilian enterprises) – is likely to contribute to the success of these reorientations. Under which conditions can they simultaneously take part in these movements and take advantage of it ? The observed data relate to 500 enterprises divided up into eight sectors gathered in two broadly-defined sectoral groupings. The concept of dynamism, explicitly revisited on that occasion, refers to the processes in which the units are committed, more than the results they achieve. Therefore, this concept is characterized by its multidimensional aspect. The implementation of hierarchical clustering makes it possible to clearly distinguish dynamic enterprises within our sample, on the basis of 31 criterion constitutive of this state. Then, a discrete choice model allows to identify the relevant variables in predicting dynamism. Some of them appears to be always significant, whatever the analyzed sector (size, use of external services, participation in a professional organization), but others are clearly sector-specific. Such sectoral specificities also appear in the study of the relations between enterprises dynamism, their size and the possible supports they obtain. The connections between units dynamism and their financing, institutional context and experienced difficulties are finally explored. (Full text in french)

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 115.

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Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:115

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  1. Sanghoon Ahn, 2002. "Competition, Innovation and Productivity Growth: A Review of Theory and Evidence," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 317, OECD Publishing.
  2. Lucia Foster & John Haltiwanger & C.J. Krizan, 1998. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Working Papers 6803, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. E. Le Roch, 1988. "Dynamique des PME dans un monde en mutation," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, vol. 44(1), pages 89-96.
  4. Eric J. Bartelsman & Mark Doms, 2000. "Understanding productivity: lessons from longitudinal microdata," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. François Combarnous & Pascal Labazée, 2002. "Entreprises et emploi en Côte d'Ivoire," Série de recherche 05, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  6. Zimmermann, J-B, 1997. "Nomadisme et ancrage territorial : reperes methodologiques pour une approche renouvelee des relations firmes-territoires," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 97c04, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
  7. Masahisa Fujita & Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262561476.
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