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Corporation Tax Asymmetries:Effective Tax Rates and Profit Shifting

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  • John Creedy
  • Norman Gemmell

Abstract

This paper examines the way in which the asymmetric treatment of losses within corporate tax codes can be expected to affect behavioural responses to changes in tax rates. The paper introduces the concept of an equivalent tax function, raising the same present value of tax payments as the actual function, in which the effective rate on losses in any period, and thus the degree of asymmetry, is explicit. The influence on the elasticity of tax revenue with respect to the tax rate of this effective rate is then examined, where ‘loss-shifting’ occurs. Results suggest that estimates of the behavioural effect of changes in tax rates on tax revenues can be expected in general to be smaller in regimes that involve greater asymmetries in the tax treatement of losses. As losses vary over the economic cycle, asymmetric treatment also generates effects on tax revenues that are asymmetric (non-linear) between above-trend and below-trend parts of the cycle.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The University of Melbourne in its series Department of Economics - Working Papers Series with number 1028.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mlb:wpaper:1028

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  1. Myers, Stewart C. & Majd, Saman., 1986. "Tax asymmetries and corporate income tax reform," Working papers 1779-86., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  2. Alan J. Auerbach, 1986. "The Dynamic Effects of Tax Law Asymmetries," NBER Working Papers 1152, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Michael P. Devereux & R. Glenn Hubbard, 2000. "Taxing Multinationals," NBER Working Papers 7920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Feldstein, Martin, 1995. "Effect of Marginal Tax Rates on Taxable Income: A Panel Study of the 1986 Tax Reform Act," Scholarly Articles 2766676, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2001. "The taxation of domestic and foreign banking," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 429-453, March.
  6. Dischinger, Matthias, 2007. "Profit Shifting by Multinationals: Indirect Evidence from European Micro Data," Discussion Papers in Economics 2029, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  7. Eric J. Bartelsman & Roel Beetsma, 2000. "Why Pay More? Corporate Tax Avoidance through Transfer Pricing in OECD Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 324, CESifo Group Munich.
  8. John Creedy & Norman Gemmell, 2007. "Corporation Tax Buoyancy and Revenue Elasticity in the UK," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 985, The University of Melbourne.
  9. Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc, 2007. "International Profit Shifting within European Multinationals," CEPR Discussion Papers 6048, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. John R. Graham, 2000. "How Big Are the Tax Benefits of Debt?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1901-1941, October.
  11. Altshuler, Rosanne & Auerbach, Alan J, 1990. "The Significance of Tax Law Asymmetries: An Empirical Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(1), pages 61-86, February.
  12. John Creedy & Norman Gemmell, 2007. "Modelling Behavioural Responses to Profit Taxation: The Case of the UK Corporation Tax," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 998, The University of Melbourne.
  13. Devereux, Michael P, 1989. "Tax Asymmetries, the Cost of Capital and Investment: Some Evidence from United Kingdom Panel Data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(395), pages 103-12, Supplemen.
  14. Cooper, Michael & Knittel, Matthew, 2006. "Partial Loss Refundability: How Are Corporate Tax Losses Used?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 59(3), pages 651-63, September.
  15. Feldstein, Martin, 1995. "The Effect of Marginal Tax Rates on Taxable Income: A Panel Study of the 1986 Tax Reform Act," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(3), pages 551-72, June.
  16. Saman Majd & Stewart C. Myers, 1986. "Tax Asymmetries and Corporate Income Tax Reform," NBER Working Papers 1924, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Keser, Claudia & Kimpel, Gerrit & Oestreicher, Andreas, 2014. "The CCCTB option: An experimental study," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 199, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.

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