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Improper Churn: Social Costs and Macroeconomic Consequences

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  • Ricardo Caballero
  • Muhammad Hammour

Abstract

This paper assembles elements that are essential in forming an integral picture of the way a churning' economy functions and of the disruptions caused by transactional difficulties in labor and financial markets. We couch our analysis in a stochastic equilibrium model anchored with US evidence on gross factor flows and on rents in worker and firm income. We develop a social accounting framework to measure the costs of transactional impediments. We calculate the average social loss associated with structural unemployment and low productivity -- due to technological sclerosis' and a scrambling' of productivity rankings in entry and exit decisions. We also estimate the loss from a recession. An additional forty percent to the traditional unemployment cost is due to reduced productivity and is determined by the recession's cumulative effect on the economy's churn rate. Although a recessionary shock increases the economy's turbulence' at impact, semi-structural VAR evidence from US manufacturing indicates that, cumulatively, it results in a chill' -- which is costly in an economy that suffers from sclerosis.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics in its series Working papers with number 98-11.

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Date of creation: Jul 1998
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Handle: RePEc:mit:worpap:98-11

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Postal: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (MIT), DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, 50 MEMORIAL DRIVE CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS 02142 USA
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References

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  1. John M. Abowd & Thomas Lemieux, 1991. "The Effects of Product Market Competition on Collective Bargaining Agreements: The Case of Foreign Competition in Canada," NBER Working Papers 3808, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Alderson, Michael J. & Betker, Brian L., 1995. "Liquidation costs and capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 45-69, September.
  3. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Caballero, Ricardo & Hammour, Mohamad, 1999. "The Cost of Recessions Revisited: A Reverse-Liquidationist View," CEPR Discussion Papers 2331, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Wouter J. den Haan & Garey Ramey & Joel Watson, 1999. "Liquidity Flows and Fragility of Business Enterprises," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1215, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  3. Juha Kilponen & David Mayes & Jouko Vilmunen, 1999. "Labour Market Flexibility in Northern Europe," One Europe or Several? Working Papers 2, One-Europe Programme.
  4. Koskela, Erkki & Stenbacka, Rune, 2004. "Profit Sharing, Credit Market Imperfections and Equilibrium Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 1020, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Mayes, David & Vilmunen, Jouko, 1999. "Unemployment in a Small Open Economy: Finland and New Zealand," Research Discussion Papers 10/1999, Bank of Finland.
  6. Erkki Koskela & Rune Stenbacka, 2001. "Equilibrium Unemployment with Credit and Labour Market Imperfections," CESifo Working Paper Series 419, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Berthold, Norbert & Fehn, Rainer, 1999. "Aggressive Lohnpolitik, überschießende Kapitalintensität und steigende Arbeitslosigkeit: können Investivlöhne für Abhilfe sorgen?," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge 28, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Lehrstuhl für Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbes. Wirtschaftsordnung und Sozialpolitik.
  8. Scott Schuh & Robert K. Triest, 1998. "Job reallocation and the business cycle: new facts for an old debate," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 42(Jun), pages 271-357.
  9. Gadi Barlevy, 1999. "Credit Market Frictions and the Reallocation Process," Discussion Papers 1251, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  10. Wasmer, Etienne & Weil, Philippe, 2000. "The Macroeconomics of Labor and Credit Market Imperfections," IZA Discussion Papers 179, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Pertti Haaparanta, 2000. "International Trade and Search," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0858, Econometric Society.
  12. Shumpei Takemori & Kenji Wada, 2003. "Crisis and Creative Destruction: Cases of Korean and Japanese Stock Markets," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 301-317, December.
  13. Andrew Figura, 2002. "The cyclical behavior of short-term and long-term job flows," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-12, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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