A least squares approach to latent variables extraction in formative-reflective models
AbstractIn this paper, we propose a new least-squares based procedure to extract exogenous and endogenous latent variables in formative-reflective structural equation models. The procedure is a valuable alternative to PLS-PM and Lisrel; it is fully consistent with the causal structure of formative-reflective schemes and extracts both the structural parameters and the factor scores, without identification or indeterminacy problems. The algorithm can be applied to virtually any kind of formative-reflective scheme, with unidimensional and even multidimensional formative blocks. To show the effectiveness of the proposal, some simulated examples are discussed. A real data application, pertaining to customer equity management, is also provided, comparing the outputs of our approach with those of PLS-PM, which may produce inconsistent results when applied to formative-reflective schemes.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Statistica in its series Working Papers with number 20120302.
Length: 16 pages
Date of creation: 04 Mar 2012
Date of revision:
path model; formative-reflective model; least squares; reduced rank regression; PLS-PM;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bruhn, Manfred & Georgi, Dominik & Hadwich, Karsten, 2008. "Customer equity management as formative second-order construct," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(12), pages 1292-1301, December.
- Wilcox, James B. & Howell, Roy D. & Breivik, Einar, 2008. "Questions about formative measurement," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(12), pages 1219-1228, December.
- Vittadini, Giorgio & Minotti, Simona C. & Fattore, Marco & Lovaglio, Pietro G., 2007.
"On the relationships among latent variables and residuals in PLS path modeling: The formative-reflective scheme,"
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis,
Elsevier, vol. 51(12), pages 5828-5846, August.
- Giorgio Vittadini & Simona Caterina Minotti & Marco Fattore & Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio, 2005. "On the Relationships among Latent Variables and Residuals in PLS Path Modeling: the Formative-Reflective Scheme," Working Papers 20061101, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Statistica, revised Oct 2006.
- Diamantopoulos, Adamantios & Riefler, Petra & Roth, Katharina P., 2008. "Advancing formative measurement models," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(12), pages 1203-1218, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Matteo Pelagatti).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.