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Object-Based Unawareness

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Author Info

  • Kim-Sau Chung

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Minnesota)

  • Oliver Board

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to construct a user-friendly model of unawareness. We start from an axiom system (in first-order modal logic) that enables us to express the following kinds of sentences: “the agent is not sure whether or not there is anything that he is unaware of”, and “I am not sure whether or not you are aware of something that I am not”. We then prove a characterization theorem which describes a class of structures, called object-based unawareness structures, that correspond to this axiom system. As an application, we explain how an object-based unawareness structure can be use to model those American founding fathers who were opposed to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights in the constitution.

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File URL: http://www.econ.umn.edu/merr/2007_2.pdf
File Function: First version, 2007
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Minnesota, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 2007-2.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: 24 Aug 2007
Date of revision: 24 Aug 2007
Handle: RePEc:min:wpaper:2007-2

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Keywords: unawareness; object-based; modal logic; bill of rights;

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References

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  1. Feinberg, Yossi, 2004. "Subjective Reasoning--Games with Unawareness," Research Papers 1875, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  2. Eddie Dekel & Barton L. Lipman & Aldo Rustichini, 1998. "Standard State-Space Models Preclude Unawareness," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 159-174, January.
  3. Heifetz, Aviad & Meier, Martin & Schipper, Burkhard C., 2006. "Interactive unawareness," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 130(1), pages 78-94, September.
  4. Halpern, Joseph Y., 2001. "Alternative Semantics for Unawareness," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 321-339, November.
  5. Modica, Salvatore & Rustichini, Aldo, 1999. "Unawareness and Partitional Information Structures," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 265-298, May.
  6. Ronald Fagin & Joseph Y. Halpern & Yoram Moses & Moshe Y. Vardi, 2003. "Reasoning About Knowledge," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262562006, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Grant, Simon & Kline, Jeff & Quiggin, John, 2012. "A Matter of Interpretation: Ambiguous Contracts and Liquidated Damages," Risk and Sustainable Management Group Working Papers 151204, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
  2. Oliver Walker, 2011. "Unawareness with ‘possible’ possible worlds," Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Working Papers 69, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
  3. Simon Grant & Jeff Kline & John Quiggin, 2009. "A Matter of Interpretation: Bargaining over Ambiguous Contracts," Risk & Uncertainty Working Papers WPR09_3, Risk and Sustainable Management Group, University of Queensland.
  4. Burkhard C. Schipper & Oliver Board & Kim-Sau Chung, 2009. "Two Models of Unawareness: Comparing the object-based and subjective-state-space approaches," Working Papers 93, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  5. Yi-Chun Chen & Jeffrey Ely & Xiao Luo, 2012. "Note on unawareness: Negative Introspection versus AU Introspection (and KU Introspection)," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 325-329, May.
  6. Spyros Galanis, 2011. "Syntactic foundations for unawareness of theorems," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 71(4), pages 593-614, October.
  7. Spyros Galanis, 2013. "Unawareness of theorems," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 41-73, January.
  8. Sarah Auster, 2012. "Asymmetric Awareness and Moral Hazard," Economics Working Papers ECO2012/23, European University Institute.
  9. Blume, Andreas & Gneezy, Uri, 2010. "Cognitive forward induction and coordination without common knowledge: An experimental study," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 488-511, March.
  10. Oliver Board & Kim-Sau Chung & Burkhard C. Schipper, 2008. "Two Models of Unawareness," Working Papers 379, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2009.
  11. Salvatore Modica, 2008. "Unawareness, priors and posteriors," Decisions in Economics and Finance, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 81-94, November.
  12. Feinberg, Yossi, 2012. "Games with Unawareness," Research Papers 2122, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  13. Zhao, Xiaojian, 2011. "Framing contingencies in contracts," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 31-40, January.
  14. Grant, Simon & Kline, J. Jude & Quiggin, John, 2012. "Differential awareness, ambiguity, and incomplete contracts: A model of contractual disputes," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 494-504.
  15. Oliver Board, 2008. "Object-Based Unawareness: Theory and Applications," Working Papers 378, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2009.
  16. Grant, Simon & Kline, Jeff & Quiggin, John, 2011. "Ambiguous contracts: a syntactic approach," Risk and Sustainable Management Group Working Papers 153052, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
  17. Galanis, Spyros, 2013. "Trade and the value of information under unawareness," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 1313, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.

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