Does educational achievement help to explain income inequality?
AbstractIn this paper we propose to measure inequality of educational achievements by constructing a Giniindex on educational attainments. We then use the proposed measure to analyse the relationshi between inequality in incomes and educational achievements (in terms of both the average attainments and its concentration). Even if theoretical considerations suggest a non-linear relationship between these two measures of inequality, actual data indicate that average years of education have a stronger negative impact on measured income inequality. Multivariate regressions also prove that, once we take into account the negative correlation between average educational achievement and its dispersion, the relationship between income inequality and average years of schooling is U-shaped, with a lower turning point at 6. 5 years. Income inequality is also negatively related to per capita income and positively related to capital/output ratio and government expenditure in education. Looking at relative contribution of education to income inequality, we find that it contributes to explain a portion of variance enclosed between 3% and 16%, but this fraction is higher in developed countries and shows a rising trend.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 2000-11.
Date of creation: 01 Jan 2000
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Checchi, D., 2000. "Does Educational Achievement Help to Explain Income Inequality?," Research Paper 208, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
- J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
- I39 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Other
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrew Glyn & Wiener Salverda, 2000.
- Kevin M. Murphy & W. Craig Riddell & Paul M. Romer, 1998. "Wages, Skills, and Technology in the United States and Canada," NBER Working Papers 6638, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Atkinson, A. B., 1997. "Measurement of Trends in Poverty and the Income Distribution," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9712, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1994.
"Returns to investment in education: A global update,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1993. "Returns to investment in education : a global update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1067, The World Bank.
- Mark Gradstein & Branko Milanovic, 2000. "Does Liberté = Egalité? A Survey of the Empirical Evidence on the Links between Political Democracy and Income Inequality," CESifo Working Paper Series 261, CESifo Group Munich.
- Karnit Flug & Antonio Spilimbergo & Erik Wachtenheim, 1996.
"Investment in Education: Do Economic Volatility and Credit Constraints Matter?,"
Research Department Publications
4000, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Flug, Karnit & Spilimbergo, Antonio & Wachtenheim, Erik, 1998. "Investment in education: do economic volatility and credit constraints matter?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 465-481, April.
- Cornia, G.A., 1999. "Liberalization, Globalization and Income Distribution," Research Paper 157, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
- Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
- O'Neill, Donal, 1995. "Education and Income Growth: Implications for Cross-Country Inequality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(6), pages 1289-1301, December.
- Perotti, Roberto, 1993. "Political Equilibrium, Income Distribution, and Growth," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 755-76, October.
- Hongyi Li & Lyn Squire & Tao Zhang & Heng-fu Zou, 1999.
"A Data Set on Income Distribution,"
CEMA Working Papers
575, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
- Matthew Higgins & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1999.
"Explaining Inequality the World Round: Cohort Size, Kuznets Curves, andOpenness,"
NBER Working Papers
7224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Matthew Higgins & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1999. "Explaining inequality the world round: cohort size, Kuznets curves, and openness," Staff Reports 79, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Perotti, Roberto, 1996. " Growth, Income Distribution, and Democracy: What the Data Say," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 149-87, June.
- Nielsen, H.S., 1998. "Child Labor and School Attendance: Two Joint Decisions," Papers 98-15, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Klaus Deininger & Lyn Squire, 1996.
"A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality,"
CEMA Working Papers
512, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
- Bénabou, Roland, 1996.
"Inequality and Growth,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1450, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Anthony B. Atkinson & Andrea Brandolini, 2000.
"Promise and Pitfalls in the Use of 'Secondary' Data-Sets: Income Inequality in OECD Countries,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
379, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Atkinson, A.B. & Brandolini, A., 2000. "Promise and Pitfalls in the Use of 'Secondary' Data -Sets: Income Inequality in OECD Countries," Papers 379, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
- Breen, R. & Garcia-Penalosa, C., 1999.
"Income Inequality and Macroeconomic Volatility: an Empirical Investigation,"
99b11, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
- Richard Breen & Cecilia García-Peñalosa, 2005. "Income Inequality and Macroeconomic Volatility: An Empirical Investigation," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 380-398, 08.
- Breen, R. & Garcia-Penalosa, C., 1999. "Income Inequality and Macroeconomic Volatility: an Empirical Investigation," Economics Papers 1999-w20, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Feenstra, Robert C & Hanson, Gordon H, 1996.
"Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 240-45, May.
- Lee, Jong-Wha & Barro, Robert J, 2001.
"Schooling Quality in a Cross-Section of Countries,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 465-88, November.
- Jong-Wha Lee & Robert J. Barro, 1997. "Schooling Quality in a Cross Section of Countries," NBER Working Papers 6198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lee, J.-W. & Barro, R.J., 1998. "Schooling Quality in a Cross Section of Countries," Papers 659, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
- Robert J. Barro, 1999. "Inequality, Growth, and Investment," NBER Working Papers 7038, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Li, Hongyi & Squire, Lyn & Zou, Heng-fu, 1998.
"Explaining International and Intertemporal Variations in Income Inequality,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(446), pages 26-43, January.
- Hongyi Li & Lyn Squire & Heng-fu Zou, 1998. "Explaining International and Intertemporal Variations in Income Inequality," CEMA Working Papers 73, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
- Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong Wha, 1996. "International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 218-23, May.
- Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993.
"International comparisons of educational attainment,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 1993. "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment," NBER Working Papers 4349, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Galor, Oded & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1997.
" The Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 93-124, March.
- Galor, O. & Tsiddon, D., 1996. "The Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth," Papers 18-96, Tel Aviv - the Sackler Institute of Economic Studies.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000.
"Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999. "Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2116, The World Bank.
- Peter Gottschalk & Timothy M. Smeeding, 1997. "Cross-National Comparisons of Earnings and Income Inequality," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(2), pages 633-687, June.
- Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993.
"Occupational Choice and the Process of Development,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-98, April.
- Abhijit V. Banerjee & Andrew F. Newman, 1990. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Discussion Papers 911, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Piketty, Thomas, 1997. "The Dynamics of the Wealth Distribution and the Interest Rate with Credit Rationing," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(2), pages 173-89, April.
- Ram, Rati, 1990. "Educational Expansion and Schooling Inequality: International Evidence and Some Implications," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 266-74, May.
- Derek Neal & Sherwin Rosen, 1998. "Theories of the Distribution of Labor Earnings," NBER Working Papers 6378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:fth:coluec:595 is not listed on IDEAS
- Borjas, George J & Ramey, Valerie A, 1995. "Foreign Competition, Market Power, and Wage Inequality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1075-1110, November.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEMM Working Papers).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.