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Patterns of International Fragmentation of Production and Implications for the Labor Markets

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Author Info

  • Rodolfo Helg

    (Cattaneo University, LIUC and CESPRI, Bocconi University)

  • Lucia Tajoli

    (Politecnico di Milano and CESPRI, Bocconi University)

Abstract

Growing shares of international trade flows consist of intermediate and unfinished goods shipped from one country to another to combine manufacturing or services activities at home with those performed abroad. This configuration of the productive structure has been named “internationally fragmented”. The purpose of our work is to analyze the labor market effects of international fragmentation of production in Europe, looking at how it affects relative labor demand. Models of trade due to fragmentation of production suggest that when international fragmentation takes place we can expect to observe a change in the relative factor intensities of the affected industries. We use international trade data specifically related to international fragmentation of production to test if the shift in intensity of skilled and unskilled labor employed in Italy and Germany during the 1990s it related to the fragmentation activity.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan in its series Working Papers with number 503.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mie:wpaper:503

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Postal: ANN ARBOR MICHIGAN 48109
Web page: http://www.fordschool.umich.edu/rsie/
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Keywords: international fragmentation of production; trade; labor demand;

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References

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  1. Robert C. Feenstra, 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
  2. Pol Antras & Elhanan Helpman, 2003. "Global Sourcing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2005, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  3. Haskel, Jonathan E. & Slaughter, Matthew J., 2002. "Does the sector bias of skill-biased technical change explain changing skill premia?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1757-1783, December.
  4. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1996. "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality," NBER Working Papers 5424, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Deardorff, A.V., 1998. "Fragmentation Across Cones," Working Papers, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan 427, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  6. Gordon H. Hanson, 1994. "Localization Economies, Vertical Organization and Trade," NBER Working Papers 4744, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Carolyn Evans & James Harrigan, 2003. "Distance, time, and specialization," International Finance Discussion Papers, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 766, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Berman, Eli & Bound, John & Griliches, Zvi, 1994. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 109(2), pages 367-97, May.
  9. Bob Anderton & Paul Brenton, 1998. "Outsourcing and Low-Skilled Workers in the UK," CSGR Working papers series 12/98, Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR), University of Warwick.
  10. Deardorff, A.V., 1998. "Fragmentation in Simple Trade Models," Working Papers, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan 422, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  11. Robert Anderton & Paul Brenton & Eva Oscarsson, 2002. "What’s trade got to do with it? Relative demand for skills within Swedish manufacturing," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 138(4), pages 629-651, December.
  12. David Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Staff Reports 72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  13. Salvatore Baldone & Fabio Sdogati & Lucia Tajoli, 2001. "Patterns and determinants of international fragmentation of production: Evidence from outward processing trade between the EU and Central Eastern European countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 80-104, March.
  14. Hijzen, Alexander & Görg, Holger & Hine, Robert C., 2003. "International Fragmentation and Relative Wages in the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 717, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Deardorff, Alan V., 2005. "Ricardian comparative advantage with intermediate inputs," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 11-34, March.
  16. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Salvatore Baldone & Fabio Sdogati & Lucia Tajoli, 2002. "Moving to Central-Eastern Europe: Fragmentation of Production and Competitiveness of the European Textile and Apparel Industry," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, SIPI Spa, vol. 92(1), pages 209-282, January-F.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Falzoni, Anna M. & Venturini, Alessandra & Villosio, Claudia, 2004. "Wage Differentials and International Trade in Italy Using Individual Micro Data 1991-1996," IZA Discussion Papers 1204, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Ariel Burstein & Christopher Johann Kurz & Linda Tesar, 2004. "Trade, Production Sharing and the International Transmission of Business Cycles," Working Papers, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan 522, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  3. Carmen Díaz Mora & Rosario Gandoy Juste, . "Estrategias de fragmentación de la producción: Una realidad en la industria española?," Studies on the Spanish Economy 180, FEDEA.
  4. Swenson, Deborah L., 2004. "Entry costs and outsourcing decisions: evidence from the U.S. overseas assembly provision," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 267-286, December.
  5. ITO Banri & WAKASUGI Ryuhei & TOMIURA Eiichi, 2008. "Offshoring and Productivity: Evidence from Japanese Firm-level Data," Discussion papers 08028, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

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