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Uncertainty, Trade Integration and the Optimal Level of Protection in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods

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  • Michele Di Maio

    (University of Macerata)

Abstract

This paper analyzes how increasing trade integration affects individual utility when the international specialization pattern is stochastic, i.e. when the number of varieties each country produces depends on the realization of a random variable. I employ a Ricardian continuum of goods model to show that in this case a trade off emerges. As in the standard model, higher trade integration reduces prices and increases expected real income. However, higher trade integration, reducing the number of active sectors in the economy, also increases the displacement cost the worker would suffer in a bad state (i.e. when the sector she is employed into has to close down because, ex-post, the foreign country’s competing sector results to be more efficient). The main result of the model is that there exists an optimal level of protection that it is higher the smaller the price reduction induced by trade integration and the more technologically similar are countries.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Macerata University, Department of Finance and Economic Sciences in its series Working Papers with number 34-2006.

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Date of creation: Oct 2006
Date of revision: Nov 2008
Publication status: Forthcoming in Structural Change and Economic Dynamics
Handle: RePEc:mcr:wpdief:wpaper00034

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Keywords: Trade Intergration; Ricardian Model with a continuum of goods; Optimal protection; Uncertainty;

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  1. Tom Krebs & Pravin Krishna & William Maloney, 2005. "Trade Policy, Income Risk, and Welfare," NBER Working Papers 11255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Newbery, David M G & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Pareto Inferior Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 1-12, January.
  3. Dornbusch, Rudiger & Fischer, Stanley & Samuelson, Paul A, 1977. "Comparative Advantage, Trade, and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 823-39, December.
  4. Wacziarg, Romain & Imbs, Jean, 2000. "Stages of Diversification," Research Papers 1653, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  5. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 2002. "Technology, Geography, and Trade," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1741-1779, September.
  6. Rodrik, Dani, 1996. "Why do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1388, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Dani Rodrik, 1997. "Has Globalization Gone Too Far?," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 57.
  8. Fernandez, Raquel & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual-Specific Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1146-55, December.
  9. Samuel Bowles & Ugo Pagano, 2003. "Economic Integration, Cultural Standardization and the Politics of Social Insurance," Department of Economics University of Siena 408, Department of Economics, University of Siena.
  10. S. Lael Brainard, 1991. "Protecting Losers: Optimal Diversification, Insurance, and Trade Policy," NBER Working Papers 3773, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Brainard, William C. & Cooper, Richard N., 1968. "Uncertainty and Diversification in International Trade," Food Research Institute Studies, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, issue 03.
  12. Dani Rodrik, 1997. "Trade, Social Insurance, and the Limits to Globalization," NBER Working Papers 5905, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Jonathan Eaton & Gene M. Grossman, 1985. "Tariffs as Insurance: Optimal Commercial Policy When Domestic Markets Are Incomplete," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 18(2), pages 258-72, May.
  14. Luca De Benedictis & Marco Gallegati & Massimo Tamberi, 2007. "Semiparametric analysis of the specialization-income relationship," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 301-306.
  15. Helpman, Elhanan & Razin, Assaf, 1978. "A theory of international trade under uncertainty," MPRA Paper 22112, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Hausmann, Ricardo & Klinger, Bailey, 2006. "Structural Transformation and Patterns of Comparative Advantage in the Product Space," Working Paper Series rwp06-041, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
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