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Cap-and-Trade versus Baseline-and-Credit Emission Trading Plans: Experimental Evidence Under Variable Output Capacity

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  • Neil J. Buckley
  • R. Andrew Muller
  • Stuart Mestelman

Abstract

Two approaches to emissions trading are cap-and-trade, in which an aggregate cap on emissions is distributed in the form of allowance permits, and baseline-and-credit, in which firms earn emission reduction credits for emissions below their baselines. Theoretical considerations suggest the long-run equilibria of the two plans will differ if baselines are proportional to output, because a variable baseline is equivalent to an output subsidy. As a first step towards testing the full long-run model, this paper reports on a laboratory experiment designed to test the prediction under fixed emission rates and variable output capacity. A computerized environment has been created in which subjects representing firms choose output capacities under fixed emission technology and participate in markets for emission rights and for output. Demand for output is simulated. All decisions are tracked through a double-entry bookkeeping system. Our evidence supports the theoretical prediction that aggregate output and emissions are significantly greater under a baseline-and-credit trading plan than under a comparable cap-and-trade plan.

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File URL: http://socserv.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~mceel/papers/varcaperc.pdf
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File URL: http://socserv.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~mceel/papers/varcapercappa.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by McMaster University in its series McMaster Experimental Economics Laboratory Publications with number 2004-06.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mcm:mceelp:2004-06

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  1. Donald N. Dewees, 2001. "Emissions Trading: ERCs or Allowances?," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 77(4), pages 513-526.
  2. Neil Buckley & R. Andrew Muller & Stuart Mestelman, 2003. "Long-Run Implications of Alternative Emission Trading Plans: An Experiment with Robot Traders," Department of Economics Working Papers 2003-04, McMaster University.
  3. Neil J. Buckley, 2004. "Short-Run Implications of Cap-and-Trade versus Baseline-and-Credit Emission Trading Plans: Experimental Evidence," McMaster Experimental Economics Laboratory Publications 2004-03, McMaster University.
  4. Cason, Timothy N. & Plott, Charles R., 1996. "EPA's New Emissions Trading Mechanism: A Laboratory Evaluation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 133-160, March.
  5. R. Andrew Muller, 1999. "Emissions trading without a quantity constraint," Department of Economics Working Papers 1999-13, McMaster University.
  6. Fischer, Carolyn, 2003. "Combining Rate-Based and Cap-and-Trade Emissions Policies," Discussion Papers dp-03-32, Resources For the Future.
  7. Neil J. Buckley, 2004. "Short-Run Implications of Cap-and-Trade versus Baseline-and-Credit Emission Trading Plans: Experimental Evidence," Department of Economics Working Papers 2004-05, McMaster University.
  8. Cason, Timothy N, 1995. "An Experimental Investigation of the Seller Incentives in the EPA's Emission Trading Auction," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 905-22, September.
  9. Fischer, Carolyn, 2001. "Rebating Environmental Policy Revenues: Output-Based Allocations and Tradable Performance Standards," Discussion Papers dp-01-22, Resources For the Future.
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