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Productivité et réglementation environnementale: une analyse de l'hypothèse de Porter

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  • Ambec, Stefan
  • Barla, Philippe

Abstract

Selon l'hypothèse de Porter, des réglementations environnementales (RE) strictes doivent avoir un impact positif sur la productivité des firmes touchées. Dans ce papier, nous revoyons les arguments théoriques et empiriques entourant cette hypothèse. Nous montrons qu'il existe peu de justifications théoriques solides à cette hypothèse mais que des développements théoriques récents (comme par exemple la théorie de la firme) offrent des perspectives intéressantes. Sur le plan empirique, la plupart des évidences suggèrent que, globalement, les RE ont un impact plutôt négatif sur les entreprises qui y sont soumises. Toutefois, ces recherches présentent de nombreuses limites et notamment une absence de cadre théorique. De plus, les mesures de productivité utilisées sont généralement inadéquates puisqu'elles ne tiennent pas compte explicitement de l'existence d'outputs indésirables. Nous revoyons les travaux récents sur les mesures de productivité verte. De notre revue de la littérature, nous concluons que si l'on doit rester sceptique vis-à-vis de cette hypothèse, il est encore prématuré pour la rejeter complètement. The Porter hypothesis predicts that environmental regulations (ER) should have a positive impact on the productivity of the regulated firms. In this paper, we review the theoretical and empirical arguments surrounding this hypothesis. We show that there are relatively few formal theoretical justifications to this hypothesis. However, some recent theoretical advances (particularly in firm theory) provide intriguing possibilities. Generally, empirical evidence suggest that ER have a negative impact on regulated firms. However, these studies have numerous limitations and particularly a lack of theoretical framework. Moreover, the measures of productivity used are generally inadequate since they do not explicitly include undesirable outputs. We discuss the recent development of green productivity measures. From this review of the literature, we conclude that while there are evidence against the Porter Hypothesis, it is probably too soon to completely reject it.

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Paper provided by Université Laval - Département d'économique in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 0107.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:lvl:laeccr:0107

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Keywords: Productivité; Réglementation environnementale; Hypothèse de Porter;

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  1. Eli Berman & Linda T.M. Bui, 1998. "Environmental Regulation and Productivity: Evidence from Oil Refineries," NBER Working Papers 6776, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Simpson, R. David & Bradford, Robert III, 1996. "Taxing Variable Cost: Environmental Regulation as Industrial Policy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 282-300, May.
  3. Gollop, Frank M & Roberts, Mark J, 1983. "Environmental Regulations and Productivity Growth: The Case of Fossil-Fueled Electric Power Generation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(4), pages 654-74, August.
  4. Charles Dufour & Paul Lanoie & Michel Patry, 1995. "Regulation and Productivity in the Quebec Manufacturing Sector," CIRANO Working Papers 95s-12, CIRANO.
  5. Cadot Olivier & Sinclair-Desgagne Bernard, 1995. "Environmental Standards and Industrial Policy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 228-237, September.
  6. Barbera, Anthony J. & McConnell, Virginia D., 1990. "The impact of environmental regulations on industry productivity: Direct and indirect effects," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 50-65, January.
  7. Mathias Dewatripont & Philippe Aghion & Patrick Rey, 1997. "Corporate governance, competition policy and industrial policy," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9613, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  8. Ouellette, Pierre & Lasserre, Pierre, 1985. "Mesure de la productivité : la méthode de Divisia," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 61(4), pages 507-526, décembre.
  9. Adam B. Jaffe & Karen Palmer, 1996. "Environmental Regulation and Innovation: A Panel Data Study," NBER Working Papers 5545, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Rey, Patrick & Salanie, Bernard, 1996. "On the Value of Commitment with Asymmetric Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1395-1414, November.
  11. Fare, Rolf, et al, 1989. "Multilateral Productivity Comparisons When Some Outputs Are Undesirable: A Nonparametric Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 90-98, February.
  12. Stefan Ambec & Philippe Barla, 2001. "A Theoretical Foundation of the Porter Hypothesis," CSEF Working Papers 54, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  13. Christainsen, Gregory B. & Haveman, Robert H., 1981. "The contribution of environmental regulations to the slowdown in productivity growth," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 381-390, December.
  14. Pittman, Russell W, 1983. "Multilateral Productivity Comparisons with Undesirable Outputs," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(372), pages 883-91, December.
  15. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-37, December.
  16. Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Tyteca, Daniel, 1996. "An activity analysis model of the environmental performance of firms--application to fossil-fuel-fired electric utilities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 161-175, August.
  17. Boyd, Gale A. & McClelland, John D., 1999. "The Impact of Environmental Constraints on Productivity Improvement in Integrated Paper Plants," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 121-142, September.
  18. Fare, Rolf, et al, 1993. "Derivation of Shadow Prices for Undesirable Outputs: A Distance Function Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(2), pages 374-80, May.
  19. Karen Palmer & Wallace E. Oates & Paul R. Portney, 1995. "Tightening Environmental Standards: The Benefit-Cost or the No-Cost Paradigm?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 119-132, Fall.
  20. J.B. Smith & W A. Sims, 1985. "The Impact of Pollution Charges on Productivity Growth in Canadian Brewing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(3), pages 410-423, Autumn.
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Cited by:
  1. Vanessa OLTRA & Maïder SAINT JEAN, 2009. "Environmental Innovations and Industrial Dynamics (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2009-22, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
  2. Fuentes Castro, D., 2012. "Funding for green growth," Working papers 392, Banque de France.

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