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Poverty, Income Distribution and CGE Modeling: Does the Functional Form of Distribution Matter?

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  • Dorothée Boccanfuso
  • Bernard Decaluwé
  • Luc Savard

Abstract

In this paper, we provide an overview of approaches used to model income distribution and poverty in CGE models. CGE models have started to use income distribution functional forms such as the lognormal, Pareto, beta distribution and Kernel non-parametric methods to apply GFT poverty indices. None of the authors of these papers have gone into much detail to justify the use of one method or functional form over the other, within the context of this type of work. Extensive literature exists on the choice of functional forms to estimate income distribution; however it has not been utilized in the CGE context. Given the fact that the desegregation of groups of households can be important in CGE analysis and the fact that the impact on income of policy simulations are often small in CGE models, we investigate the importance of othe choice of the functional form used to estimate the income distribution of groups of households. We compare six functional forms with parametric estimation and on a non-parametric method. Results show that no single form is more appropriate in all cases or groups of households. The characteristics of samples and subgroups play an important role and the choice shoudl be guided by the best fitting distribution.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRPEE in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 0332.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0332

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Keywords: Computable general equilibrium models; estimation; personal income and wealth distribution; measurement and analysis of poverty;

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References

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  1. McDonald, James B. & Xu, Yexiao J., 1995. "A generalization of the beta distribution with applications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 427-428, October.
  2. Chia, Ngee-Choon & Wahba, Sadek & Whalley, John, 1994. "Poverty-Reducing Targeting Programmes: A General Equilibrium Approach," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 3(2), pages 309-38, October.
  3. McDonald, James B, 1984. "Some Generalized Functions for the Size Distribution of Income," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 647-63, May.
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  5. Thorbecke, Erik, 1991. "Adjustment, growth and income distribution in Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1595-1614, November.
  6. Sahota, Gian Singh, 1978. "Theories of Personal Income Distribution: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 1-55, March.
  7. McDonald, James B & Ransom, Michael R, 1979. "Functional Forms, Estimation Techniques and the Distribution of Income," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(6), pages 1513-25, November.
  8. McDonald, James B & Mantrala, Anand, 1995. "The Distribution of Personal Income: Revisited," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 201-04, April-Jun.
  9. Michael B. Gordy, 1998. "A generalization of generalized beta distributions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-18, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Singh, S K & Maddala, G S, 1976. "A Function for Size Distribution of Incomes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(5), pages 963-70, September.
  11. Bourguignon, Francois & De Melo, Jaime & Suwa, Akiko, 1991. "Modeling the effects of adjustment programs on income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1527-1544, November.
  12. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  13. John Cockburn, 2002. "Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Nepal: A Computable General Equilibrium Micro Simulation Analysis," CSAE Working Paper Series 2002-11, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  14. Morrisson, Christian, 1991. "Adjustment, incomes and poverty in Morocco," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1633-1651, November.
  15. Majumder, Amita & Chakravarty, Satya Ranjan, 1990. "Distribution of Personal Income: Development of a New Model and Its Application to U.S. Income Data," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(2), pages 189-96, April-Jun.
  16. Decaluwe, B. & Patry, A. & Savard, L. & Thorbecke, E., 1999. "Poverty Analysis Within a General Equilibrium Framework," Cahiers de recherche 9909, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Dorothée Boccanfuso & Luc Savard, 2005. "Analyse d’Impact de la Construction de l’Autoroute Dakar-Thies : un Modèle Equilibre Géneral Calculable Multi-Ménages Intégrés," Cahiers de recherche 05-11, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  2. Agenor, Pierre-Richard & Chen, Derek H.C. & Grimm, Michael, 2004. "Linking representative household models with household surveys for poverty analysis : a comparison of alternative methodologies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3343, The World Bank.
  3. Davies, James B., 2004. "Microsimulation, CGE and Macro Modelling for Transition and Developing Economies," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  4. John Cockburn & Erwin Corong & Caesar Cororaton, 2010. "Integrated Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) microsimulation approach," International Journal of Microsimulation, Interational Microsimulation Association, vol. 3(1), pages 60-71.
  5. Dorothée BOCCANFUSO & Tambi Samuel KABORE, 2004. "Macroeconomic Growth, Sectoral Quality Of Growth And Poverty In Developing Countries: Measure And Application To Burkina Faso," Cahiers de recherche 04-07, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  6. D. Boccanfuso & F. Cabral & F. Cissé & A. Diagne & L. Savard, 2003. "Pauvreté et distribution de revenus au Sénégal: une approche par la modélisation en équilibre général calculable micro-simulé," Cahiers de recherche 0333, CIRPEE.
  7. Dorothée Boccanfuso & François Joseph Cabral & Luc Savard, 2004. "Une analyse préliminaire d'impacts de la libéralisation de la filière arachide au Sénégal: un modèle d'équilibre général calculable multi-ménages," Cahiers de recherche 0406, CIRPEE.
  8. Dorothée Boccanfuso & Rodolphe Missinhoun & Luc Savard, 2007. "Reformes Economiques Et Croissance Pro-Pauvre : Une Application Macro-Micro Aux Philippines," Cahiers de recherche 07-17, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  9. Nabil Annabi & H. Khondker Bazlul & Selim Raihan & John Cockburn & Bernard Decaluwe, 2005. "Implications of WTO Agreements and Domestic Trade Policy Reforms for Poverty in Bangladesh: Short vs. Long Run," Working Papers MPIA 2005-02, PEP-MPIA.
  10. Andrew Feltenstein & Luciana Lopes & Janet Porras Mendoza & Sally Wallace, 2013. "“The Impact of Micro-simulation and CGE modeling on Tax Reform and Tax Advice in Developing Countries”: A Survey of Alternative Approaches and an Application to Pakistan," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1309, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  11. Luc Savard, 2004. "Poverty and Inequality Analysis within a CGE Framework: a Comparative Analysis of the Representative Agent and Micro-Simulation Approaches," Cahiers de recherche 0412, CIRPEE.
  12. N.M. Nkang & B.T. Omonona & S.A. Yusuf & O.A. Oni, 2013. "Simulating the Impact of Exogenous Food Price Shock on Agriculture and the Poor in Nigeria: Results from a Computable General Equilibrium Model," Economic Analysis and Policy (EAP), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Economics and Finance, vol. 43(1), pages 79-94, March.

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