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'Institutional Profiles' : Presentation and Analysis of an Original Database of the Institutional Characteristics of Developing, in Transition and Developed Countries

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Author Info

  • BERTHELIER, Pierre

    ()
    (Direction de la Prévision du Ministère de l'Economie des Finances et de l'Industrie)

  • DESDOIGTS, Alain

    ()
    (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne
    EUREQua - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)

  • OULD AOUDIA , Jacques

    ()
    (Direction de la Prévision du Ministère de l'Economie des Finances et de l'Industrie)

Abstract

The disparity between the development paths followed by the economies of a limited number of countries, known as 'emerging', and the bulk of the other developing countries has shown the limitations of previous development strategies. As a consequence, at the beginning of the 1990s, the question of institutions has been propelled to the top of the economic agenda. The empirical literature has now solidly documented and validated the general relationship between institutions and development.With this as a starting point, attention is now being concentrated on the actual nature of the institutional mechanisms at work, the inter-relationships between them and their combined impact on development.Whereas previous analysis of development had mainly drawn on the instruments derived from national accounts, there are not as yet internationally standardised observation instruments for tackling the questions now being raised. A few institutional indicators were created since the end of the 1990s but these cover only a limited part of the institutional domain.This document attempts to fill the gap, putting forward an original database covering a broad and detailed field of institutional characteristics for 51 countries (developing, in transition and developed countries). The basic data were collected using a questionnaire completed in 2001 by the economic missions of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry in the selected countries, enabling us to cover 80% of the world's GDP and population. In this document, we set out the method used for the construction of our indicators. We then compare them with other existing indicators, noting the existence of convergence for elements that are common to the respective inquiries. On the basis of our indicators we confirm the causal relationship between institutions and levels of development. We then go on to explore the database using a non-inferential (data analysis) approach. We identify an 'institutional core' consisting of four major institutional characteristics (governance, security of transactions, innovation and regulations), leading us to draw up an initial typology of institutional profiles: 'authoritarian-paternalistic', 'mild liberal', 'pure liberal' and 'informal'. This typology is then supplemented by a combination of both institutional and economic variables, highlighting the main thrusts providing the framework for the database: welfare and reform. The classification obtained aggregates countries by relevant sub-groups. This approach, which was initiated by the Ministry for economic policy purposes, has since been opened up, first, to the academic world, by bringing together a scientific committee composed of development economists in order to monitor the progress of the work described here, and, second, by making it possible for Research Centres to use the database. / La disparité des trajectoires économiques entre un nombre limité de pays, les 'émergents', et la plupart des autres pays du Sud, a marqué la limite des stratégies de développement antérieures et projeté, au début des années 90, la question des institutions au cœur des préoccupations économiques. La littérature empirique a maintenant solidement documenté et validé la relation globale entre institutions et développement.Sur cet acquis, l'attention est désormais concentrée sur la nature même des mécanismes institutionnels à l'œuvre, leurs interrelations, leurs effets conjoints sur le développement.Alors que l'analyse du développement avait jusqu'alors principalement emprunté aux outils de la compatibilité nationale, il n'existe pas encore d'instruments d'observation internationalement standardisés pour aborder ces nouveaux questionnements. Quelques indicateurs institutionnels ont été créés depuis la fin des années 90. Ils ne couvrent cependant qu'une partie limitée du champ institutionnel. Ce document s'efforce de répondre à ce manque. Il présente une base de données originale qui couvre un champ vaste et détaillé de caractéristiques institutionnelles sur 51 pays en développement, en transition et développés. Les données élémentaires ont été recueillies à partir d'un questionnaire documenté en 2001 par les Missions Economiques du Ministère de l'Economie des Finances et de l'Industrie (France) dans les pays retenus, nous permettant de couvrir 80% du PIB et de la population de la planète. Dans ce document, nous délivrons la méthode adoptée pour construire nos indicateurs. Nous les confrontons aux autres indicateurs existants, et constatons une convergence sur la partie commune couverte. Nous confirmons, à partir de nos indicateurs, la relation déterministe entre institutions et niveau de développement. Nous explorons ensuite la base de données à partir d'une approche non inférentielle (analyse de données) : nous révélons un 'noyau institutionnel' formé de quatre caractéristiques institutionnelles majeures (gouvernance, sécurité des transactions, innovation et régulations), et débouchons sur une première typologie de " profils institutionnels " : les 'autoritaires-paternalistes', les 'libéraux tempérés', les 'libéraux purs' et les 'informels'. La combinaison des variables institutionnelles et des variables structurelles enrichit cette typologie et fait apparaître les grands axes qui structurent la base : l'axe du bien-être et celui des réformes. La classification obtenue regroupe les pays en sous-ensembles pertinents. Cette démarche, initiée par le Ministère pour ses besoins de politique économique, a été ouverte sur le monde académique d'une part en réunissant un comité scientifique, regroupant des économistes du développement, pour suivre le déroulement des travaux ici présentés, d'autre part en offrant aux Centres de Recherche la possibilité d'utiliser la base de données.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by LEG, Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne in its series LEG - Document de travail - Economie with number 2004-01.

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Length: 52 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lat:legeco:2004-01

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Keywords: institutions; development; indicators; database ; institutions; développement; indicateurs; base de données;

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References

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  1. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, . "The Quality of Government," Working Paper 19452, Harvard University OpenScholar.
  2. Giuseppe Nicoletti & Stefano Scarpetta & Olivier Boylaud, 2000. "Summary Indicators of Product Market Regulation with an Extension to Employment Protection Legislation," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 226, OECD Publishing.
  3. Stephen Knack & Philip Keefer, 1995. "Institutions And Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 207-227, November.
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  5. Keefer, Philip & Knack, Stephen, 1997. "Why Don't Poor Countries Catch Up? A Cross-National Test of Institutional Explanation," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(3), pages 590-602, July.
  6. North, Douglass C, 1994. "Economic Performance through Time," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 359-68, June.
  7. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Levine, R., 2000. "A new database on financial development and structure," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125518, Tilburg University.
  8. Aron, Janine, 2000. "Growth and Institutions: A Review of the Evidence," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 15(1), pages 99-135, February.
  9. Rodrik, Dani, 2000. "Institutions For High-Quality Growth: What They Are And How To Acquire Them," CEPR Discussion Papers 2370, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Pierre Berthelier & Alain Desdoigts & Jacques Ould Aoudia, 2004. "Profils institutionnels," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 19(1), pages 121-196.
  11. Mauro, Paolo, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712, August.
  12. Arvind Subramanian & Francesco Trebbi & Dani Rodrik, 2002. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Integration and Geography in Economic Development," IMF Working Papers 02/189, International Monetary Fund.
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Cited by:
  1. Hervé Boulhol, 2004. "Technology Differences, Institutions and Economic Growth: a Conditional Conditional Convergence," Working Papers 2004-02, CEPII research center.

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