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Modéliser la suburbanisation . Succès et limites de la microéconomie urbaine


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    (LATEC - CNRS - Université de Bourgogne)

  • HURIOT, Jean-Marie

    (LATEC - CNRS - Université de Bourgogne)

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    L'histoire de la suburbanisation de la population et de l'emploi, principalement aux Etats-Unis, permet d'identifier trois caractéristiques du phénomène. 1/ La suburbanisation se traduit par un étalement urbain tel que population et emploi s'accroissent plus en périphérie qu'au centre. 2/ La suburbanisation fait émerger de nouvelles concentrations d'activités dans la périphérie des villes-centres et donne naissance à des structures urbaines multicentriques. 3/ La suburbanisation différencie les contenus et les fonctions économiques des centres et recompose les centralités urbaines. Dans ce cadre, la suburbanisation se présente selon des modalités différentes selon les époques et les régions.Les processus de genèse des centres urbains et de transformation d'un espace monocentrique en une structure multicentrique, sont modélisés dans la théorie microéconomique de la formation des villes. Ce papier cherche à montrer dans quelle mesure ces modèles rendent compte des trois caractéristiques ci-dessus de la suburbanisation, comment ils peuvent traduire l'enchaînement des phases historiques de la suburbanisation et la différenciation régionale du processus et comment ils expliquent la suburbanisation des services supérieurs qui se développe de nos jours. / History of population and employment suburbanization, mainly in the United States, suggests three characteristics of the phenomenon. 1/ Suburbanization results in urban sprawl in such a way that population and employment increase more rapidly in the periphery than in the center. 2/ Suburbanization leads to the emergence of new activity centers in the periphery and gives rise to multicentric urban structures. 3/ Suburbanization differenciates the economic contents and functions of these activity centers and brings a new organization of urban centres. In this framework, suburbanization takes different forms depending of periods and regions. The emergence of centers and the transformation from monocentric to multicentric spaces have been modelled by microeconomics of cities. This paper seeks to establish in what extent these models can explain the preceeding characteristics of suburbanization, how far they can integrate the historical sequence of suburbanization and the regional differenciation of the process, and how they could explain the recent suburbanization of high-order services.

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    Paper provided by LATEC, Laboratoire d'Analyse et des Techniques EConomiques, CNRS UMR 5118, Université de Bourgogne in its series LATEC - Document de travail - Economie (1991-2003) with number 2001-02.

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    Length: 26 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:lat:lateco:2001-02

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    Keywords: Suburbanisation; Agglomération; Centres urbains; Etats-Unis; France; Microéconomie urbaine ; Suburbanization; Agglomeration; Urban Centers; United States; France; Microeconomics of Cities;

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