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Discount Window Borrowing after 2003: The Explicit Reduction in Implicit Costs

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  • Selva Demiralp

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Koç University)

  • Erhan Artuç

    (Department of Economics, Koç University)

Abstract

In January 2003, the Federal Reserve introduced primary credit as its main discount window lending program. The primary credit program replaced the adjustment credit program, which, subject to a number of restrictions, had generated a stigma associated with borrowing from the Fed. Eliminating or lessening the stigma of borrowing was viewed as essential for reducing the reluctance to borrow and strengthening the traditional role of the discount window as a safety valve when reserve markets tighten unexpectedly. In this paper we estimate the borrowing function prior to and after the introduction of the new facility and develop a daily model of borrowing. Using this model, we estimate the implicit cost associated with borrowing for the first time in the literature via “indirect inference” a la Gourieroux, Monfort and Renault (1993). Our results suggest that the stigma associated with borrowing from the Fed is significantly reduced in the post 2003 period.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum in its series Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers with number 0708.

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Length: 41 pages.
Date of creation: Oct 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:koc:wpaper:0708

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Keywords: Discount Window; Primary Credit; Federal Funds Market;

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References

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  1. Goodfriend, Marvin, 1983. "Discount window borrowing, monetary policy, and the post-October 6, 1979 federal reserve operating procedure," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 343-356, September.
  2. Liu, Ming-Hua & Margaritis, Dimitri & Tourani-Rad, Alireza, 2008. "Monetary policy transparency and pass-through of retail interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 501-511, April.
  3. Gourieroux, C & Monfort, A & Renault, E, 1993. "Indirect Inference," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(S), pages S85-118, Suppl. De.
  4. Nautz, Dieter & Schmidt, Sandra, 2008. "Monetary Policy Implementation and the Federal Funds Rate," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-025, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Selva Demiralp & Dennis Farley, 2003. "Declining required reserves, funds rate volatility, and open market operations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-27, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Clouse, James A. & Dow Jr., James P., 1999. "Fixed costs and the behavior of the federal funds rate," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1015-1029, July.
  7. Stephen M. Goldfeld & Edward J. Kane, 1966. "The Determinants Of Member‐Bank Borrowing: An Econometric Study," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 21(3), pages 499-514, 09.
  8. Seth B. Carpenter & Selva Demiralp, 2006. "Anticipation of Monetary Policy and Open Market Operations," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 2(2), May.
  9. Pearce, Douglas K, 1993. "Discount Window Borrowing and Federal Reserve Operating Regimes," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(4), pages 564-79, October.
  10. William Poole, 1968. "Commercial Bank Reserve Management In A Stochastic Model: Implications For Monetary Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(5), pages 769-791, December.
  11. Dutkowsky, Donald H., 1993. "Dynamic implicit cost and Discount Window borrowing : An empirical investigation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 105-120, August.
  12. Ali Darrat & Khaled Elkhal & Gaurango Banerjee & Maosen Zhong, 2004. "Why do US banks borrow from the Fed? A fresh look at the 'reluctance' phenomenon," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(7), pages 477-484.
  13. Jiang, George & Yan, Shu, 2009. "Linear-quadratic term structure models - Toward the understanding of jumps in interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 473-485, March.
  14. Kleimeier, Stefanie & Sander, Harald, 2006. "Expected versus unexpected monetary policy impulses and interest rate pass-through in euro-zone retail banking markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1839-1870, July.
  15. Smith, A A, Jr, 1993. "Estimating Nonlinear Time-Series Models Using Simulated Vector Autoregressions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(S), pages S63-84, Suppl. De.
  16. Furfine, Craig, 2001. "The reluctance to borrow from the Fed," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 209-213, August.
  17. Furfine, Craig, 2003. "Standing Facilities and Interbank Borrowing: Evidence from the Federal Reserve's New Discount Window," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 329-47, Winter.
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Cited by:
  1. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 2009. "Crisis and Responses: The Federal Reserve in the Early Stages of the Financial Crisis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 51-75, Winter.
  2. Selva Demiralp & Erhan Artuc, 2009. "Provision of Liquidity through the Primary Credit Facility during the Financial Crisis: A Structural Analysis," 2009 Meeting Papers 215, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Huberto Ennis & John Weinberg, 2013. "Over-the-counter loans, adverse selection, and stigma in the interbank market," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(4), pages 601-616, October.
  4. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 2008. "Crisis and Responses: the Federal Reserve and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008," NBER Working Papers 14134, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Gabriel Pérez Quirés & Hugo Rodréguez Mendizébal, 2009. "Asymmetric Standing Facilities: An Unexploited Monetary Policy Tool," Working Papers 414, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  6. Elizabeth Klee, 2011. "The first line of defense: the discount window during the early stages of the financial crisis," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Klee, Elizabeth, 2010. "Operational outages and aggregate uncertainty in the federal funds market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2386-2402, October.

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