Private Labels and International Trade: Trading Variety for Volume
AbstractThis paper explores the role of pooled-producer, e.g. private label, trade intermediation in shaping the range and diversity of exports. Direct sales maintain a firm's unique product characteristics (`brand equity'), whereas trade through an intermediary can take two forms — either a wholesaling arrangement that (also) maintains the exporter's unique brand but imposes a higher marginal cost (via double marginalization), or a `private label' contract under which the firm's product is pooled with other firms' output and re-sold under a new private label brand created by the intermediary. This paper focuses on the latter, and shows that the availability of the private label option results in greater total export volumes and lower average prices for consumers, but fewer independent varieties available in equilibrium. Welfare implications are mixed: consumers trade variety for volume, firms face greater competition from the new pooled-products, and intermediaries capture much of the gains from trade
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Kiel Institute for the World Economy in its series Kiel Working Papers with number 1829.
Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2013
Date of revision:
Private Labels; Export Mode; Intermediaries; Heterogeneous Firms; International Retailers;
Other versions of this item:
- Emily Blanchard & Tatyana Chesnokova & Gerald Willmann, 2013. "Private Labels and International Trade: Trading Variety for Volume," School of Economics Working Papers 2013-01, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
- Emily Blanchard & Tatyana Chesnokova & Gerald Willmann, 2013. "Private Labels and International Trade: Trading Variety for Volume," CESifo Working Paper Series 4133, CESifo Group Munich.
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
- D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
- E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-03-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2013-03-02 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-INT-2013-03-02 (International Trade)
- NEP-MKT-2013-03-02 (Marketing)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Emek Basker & Pham Hoang Van, 2010.
"Imports "Я" Us: Retail Chains as Platforms for Developing-Country Imports,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 414-18, May.
- Emek Basker & Pham Hoang Van, 2008. "Imports "R" Us: Retail Chains as Platforms for Developing-Country Imports," Working Papers 0804, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised 12 Aug 2008.
- Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl & SÃ¸rgard, Lars, 2000.
"Private Labels, Price Rivalry, and Public Policy,"
University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series
qt8wh900ks, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
- Kunal Dasgupta & Jordi Mondria, 2012. "Quality Uncertainty and Intermediation in International Trade," Working Papers tecipa-462, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Leonardo Iacovone & Beata Smarzynska Javorcik & Wolfgang Keller & James R. Tybout, 2011.
"Supplier Responses to Wal-Mart's Invasion of Mexico,"
NBER Working Papers
17204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Iacovone, Leonardo & Javorcik, Beata & Keller, Wolfgang & Tybout, James R, 2011. "Supplier Responses to Wal-Mart's Invasion in Mexico," CEPR Discussion Papers 8540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Akerman, Anders, 2010. "A Theory on the Role of Wholesalers in International Trade based on Economies of Scope," Research Papers in Economics 2010:1, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
- Bergès-Sennou Fabian & Bontems Philippe & Réquillart Vincent, 2004. "Economics of Private Labels: A Survey of Literature," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-25, February.
- Felbermayr, Gabriel J. & Jung, Benjamin, 2008. "Trade intermediaries, incomplete contracts, and the choice of export modes," TÃ¼binger DiskussionsbeitrÃ¤ge 317, University of Tübingen, School of Business and Economics.
- Keith Head & Ran Jing & Deborah L. Swenson, 2010. "From Beijing to Bentonville: Do Multinational Retailers Link Markets?," NBER Working Papers 16288, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mills, David E, 1995. "Why Retailers Sell Private Labels," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 509-28, Fall.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dieter Stribny).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.