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Manufacturers and Retailers in the Global Economy

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  • Horst Raff
  • Nicolas Schmitt

Abstract

We develop a general-equilibrium model to capture key features of the retailing and of the manufacturing industry in order to understand how these two industries interact and how labor is allocated between them. We show that the observed shift in employment from manufacturing to retailing, the rise in retailer product assortment and the emergence of slotting allowances in many retail markets are consistent with the global integration of product markets, while higher retail market concentration is best explained by technological change in retailing. We also identify a novel benefit from market integration consisting of efficiency gains in the vertical distribution chain

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Kiel Institute for the World Economy in its series Kiel Working Papers with number 1711.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:kie:kieliw:1711

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Keywords: international trade; product variety; retailing; slotting allowance; multi-product firms;

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References

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  1. Emek Basker, 2012. "Raising the Barcode Scanner: Technology and Productivity in the Retail Sector," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 1-27, July.
  2. Eckel, Carsten, 2009. "International trade and retailing," BERG Working Paper Series 63, Bamberg University, Bamberg Economic Research Group.
  3. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2004. "Exclusive Dealing and Common Agency in International Markets," CESifo Working Paper Series 1168, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Thomas J. Holmes, 1999. "Bar codes lead to frequent deliveries and superstores," Staff Report 261, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  5. Greg Shaffer, 1991. "Slotting Allowances and Resale Price Maintenance: A Comparison of Facilitating Practices," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(1), pages 120-135, Spring.
  6. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2000. "Endogenous Vertical Restraints in International Trade," Discussion Papers dp00-04, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University, revised Feb 2000.
  7. Sullivan, Mary W, 1997. "Slotting Allowances and the Market for New Products," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(2), pages 461-93, October.
  8. Robert Feenstra & Hong Ma, 2007. "Optimal Choice of Product Scope for Multiproduct Firms under Monopolistic Competition," NBER Working Papers 13703, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Emek Basker, 2006. "The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart's Growth," Working Papers 0611, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  10. Antràs, Pol & Costinot, Arnaud, 2010. "Intermediated Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 7696, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Martin Richardson, . "Trade Policy and Access to Retail Distribution," EPRU Working Paper Series 97-23, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  12. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2009. "Buyer power in international markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 222-229, November.
  13. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
  14. Emek Basker & Van Pham Hoang, 2011. "Wal-Mart as Catalyst to U.S.-China Trade," Working Papers 01, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN), Vietnam.
  15. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2012. "Imports and the structure of retail markets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1431-1455, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Angela Cheptea & Charlotte Emlinger & Karine Latouche, 2013. "Multinational retailers and home country exports," Working Papers 188885, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
  2. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2012. "Imports and the structure of retail markets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1431-1455, November.

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