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Migration and Wellbeing at the Lower Echelons of the Economy: A Study of Delhi Slums

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  • Mitra, Arup
  • Tsujita, Yuko
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    Abstract

    This paper based on a primary survey of households (2004-05) in the slum clusters of Delhi examines whether migrants are likely to experience upward mobility in their place of destination or alternatively, if they merely transfer their poverty from rural areas to large cities. First, a simple bifurcation of population in terms of poor and non-poor sub-groups is examined along with the incidence of poverty across different categories of occupations and non-workers. Then, an explanation of the variations in per capita expenditure across households is provided, and a binomial logit model (poor/non-poor) is developed identifying the variables which raise (or reduce) the probability of being non-poor (or poor). Next, an estimate of the wellbeing (deprivation) index is derived from factor analysis of a large number of variables including demographic and economic aspects of households. Empirical findings suggest that while duration of migration and the wellbeing index do not have a definite relationship, migrant households who have been in the city for a very long time have a higher wellbeing index on average than those who migrated in the last ten years. This tends to support the view that migrants do not merely transfer rural poverty to urban areas, and further that population mobility yields improvement in the living standard, if only in the very long term. Implementation of "employment-cum-shelter" support schemes in the urban areas may contribute to their wellbeing.

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    File URL: http://ir.ide.go.jp/dspace/bitstream/2344/155/3/ARRIDE_Discussion_No.51_mitra.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2006
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) in its series IDE Discussion Papers with number 51.

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    Date of creation: Mar 2006
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    Publication status: Published in IDE Discussion Paper. No. 51. 2006.3
    Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper51

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    Related research

    Keywords: Wellbeing; Migrant worker; Slums; Population movement; Quality of life; Household; Poverty; India;

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    References

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    1. Das Gupta, Monica, 1987. "Informal Security Mechanisms and Population Retention in Rural India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 101-20, October.
    2. Arup Mitra, 1992. "Urban Poverty: A Rural Spill-Over?," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 27, pages 403-419.
    3. Kuchiki, Akifumi, 2005. "Theory of a Flowchart Approach to Industrial Cluster Policy," IDE Discussion Papers 36, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    4. Stark,Oded, 1999. "Altruism and Beyond," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521663731, October.
    5. Banerjee, Biswajit, 1991. "The determinants of migrating with a pre-arranged job and of the initial duration of urban unemployment : An analysis based on Indian data on rural-to-urban migrants," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 337-351, October.
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