The Impact of United States Sanctions on the Myanmar Garment Industry
AbstractThe United States imposed trade sanctions against the military regime in Myanmar in July 2003. The import ban damaged the garment industry in particular. This industry exported nearly half of its products to the United States, and more than eighty percent of United States imports from Myanmar had been clothes. The garment industry was probably the main target of the sanctions. Nevertheless, the impact on the garment industry and its workers has not been accurately evaluated or closely examined. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the sanctions and to further understand the present situation. This is done using several sources of information, including the author's field and questionnaire surveys. This paper also describes the process of selection and polarization underway in the garment industry, an industry that now has more severe competition fueled by the sanctions. Through such a process, the impact was inflicted disproportionately on small and medium-sized domestic firms and their workers.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) in its series IDE Discussion Papers with number 42.
Date of creation: Dec 2005
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in IDE Discussion Paper. No. 42. 2005.12
Postal: Publication Office, IDE 3-2-2 Wakaba, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 261-8545 JAPAN
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other
- L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
- O14 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-11-18 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2006-11-18 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-DEV-2006-11-18 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2006-11-18 (International Trade)
- NEP-SEA-2006-11-18 (South East Asia)
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- Kudo, Toshihiro, 2013. "Myanmar's apparel industry in the new international environment : prospects and challenges," IDE Discussion Papers 430, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
- Yamagata, Tatsufumi, 2007. "Prospects for Development of the Garment Industry in Developing Countries: What Has Happened Since the MFA Phase-Out?," IDE Discussion Papers 101, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
- Myo Myo Myint & Rajah Rasiah, 2012. "Foreign Capital and Garment Export from Myanmar: Implications for the Labour Process," Institutions and Economies (formerly known as International Journal of Institutions and Economies), Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, vol. 4(3), pages 151-172, October.
- Meyer, Klaus E. & Thein, Htwe Htwe, 2014. "Business under adverse home country institutions: The case of international sanctions against Myanmar," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 156-171.
- Kudo, Toshihiro, 2006. "Myanmar's Economic Relations with China: Can China Support the Myanmar Economy?," IDE Discussion Papers 66, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
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