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Netzwerke und Leistungseliten in Forschung und Entwicklung

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  • Christiane Götze

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    (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Lehrstuhl für ABWL und Produktion/Industriebetriebslehre)

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    Abstract

    Erkenntnisse über Netzwerkstrukturen in F+E und über ihre technologisch herausragenden Mitarbeiter fußen bisher ausschließlich auf Ergebnissen qualitativer Untersuchungen. Der Versuch einer stärkeren quantitativen Fundierung für das strategische Human Resource Management in diesem Bereich steht bisher aus. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist vor diesem Hintergrund bestrebt, die entstandene Lücke mittels Kombination der Methoden der Patent- und der Netzwerkanalyse zu schließen. Er zeigt anhand der Untersuchung einer Patentstichprobe aus der Herzschrittmachertechnologie, dass sich ein Großteil der Leistung in Forschung und Entwicklung nicht nur auf einige wenige Köpfe konzentriert, sondern vor allem, dass sich diese Leistungsträger signifikant von ihren Miterfindern unterscheiden. Sie weisen umfangreichere Netzwerkkontakte auf, befinden sich eher auf Mittlerpositionen und tendieren dazu, häufiger mit denselben Erfindern zusammen zu arbeiten. Einige Erkenntnisse qualitativ orientierter Studien können somit bestätigt, andere müssen verworfen werden. Summary Scientific research concerning R+D network structures and the characteristics of their top-performing inventors has thus far mainly been based on qualitative studies. A stronger empirical foundation for Strategic Human Resource Management in this field is still pending. This paper fills this vacancy by combining the two methods of patent and network analysis. It shows by means of a patent sample from cardiac pacemaker technology, that the majority of technological performance is not only concentrated on just a few individuals, but that they even more importantly show characteristics dissimilar to their fellow inventors. The top-performing inventors possess substantially more contacts within the network, are more likely to take a mediator position, and work in conjunction with the same actors more frequently. Some findings of qualitative studies can thus be confirmed, whereas others must be rejected.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration in its series Jena Research Papers in Business and Economics - Working and Discussion Papers with number 22/2007.

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    Date of creation: 21 Sep 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:jen:jenjbe:2007-22

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    Keywords: Netzwerk; F+E; Patente; Erfinder; Personal;

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    References

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    1. Reinhard Haupt, 2005. "Patent analysis of a companys technology strength," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft 01/2005, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    2. Werner, Björn M., 2002. "Messung und Bewertung der Leistung von Forschung und Entwicklung im Innovationsprozeß: Methodenüberblick, Entwicklung und Anwendung eines neuen Konzepts," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 16397, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    3. Haupt, Reinhard & Kloyer, Martin & Lange, Marcus, 2007. "Patent indicators for the technology life cycle development," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 387-398, April.
    4. Mark Granovetter, 2005. "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 33-50, Winter.
    5. Carpenter, Mark P. & Narin, Francis & Woolf, Patricia, 1981. "Citation rates to technologically important patents," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 160-163, October.
    6. Dietmar Harhoff & Francis Narin & F. M. Scherer & Katrin Vopel, 1999. "Citation Frequency And The Value Of Patented Inventions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(3), pages 511-515, August.
    7. Tuomo Nikulainen, 2007. "What makes a gatekeeper? Insights from the Finnish nano-community," DRUID Working Papers 07-03, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
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