Endophilia or Exophobia: Beyond Discrimination
AbstractThe immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others – are exophobic – or because they favor their own kind – are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance of the types of discrimination and their inter-relation affect market outcomes. Using a field experiment in which graders at one university were randomly assigned students' exams that did or did not contain the students' names, on average we find favoritism but no discrimination by nationality, and neither favoritism nor discrimination by gender, findings that are robust to a wide variety of potential concerns. We observe heterogeneity in both discrimination and favoritism by nationality and by gender in the distributions of graders' preferences. We show that a changing correlation between endophilia and exophobia can generate perverse predictions for observed market discrimination.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7380.
Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: May 2013
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- Salamanca Acosta N. & Feld J.F. & Hamermesh D., 2013. "Endophilia or exophobia: beyond discrimination," Research Memorandum 026, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
- Salamanca Acosta N. & Hamermesh D. & Feld J.F., 2013. "Endophilia or exophobia: beyond discrimination," ROA Research Memorandum 008, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
- Jan Feld & Nicolás Salamanca & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2013. "Endophilia or Exophobia: Beyond Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 19471, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Feld, Jan & Salamanca, Nicolás & Hamermesh, Daniel S., 2014. "Endophilia or Exophobia: Beyond Discrimination," Working Papers in Economics 593, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
- I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
- B40 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-05-19 (All new papers)
- NEP-EDU-2013-05-19 (Education)
- NEP-EXP-2013-05-19 (Experimental Economics)
- NEP-LAB-2013-05-19 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2013-05-19 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wiji Arulampalam & Alison Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2006.
"Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
510, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Wiji Arulampalam & Alison L. Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2007. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wage Distribution," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(2), pages 163-186, January.
- Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2005. "Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? Exploring the gender pay gap across the wages distribution," ISER Working Paper Series 2005-25, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2004. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," IZA Discussion Papers 1373, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Simon Burgess & Ellen Greaves, 2013.
"Test Scores, Subjective Assessment, and Stereotyping of Ethnic Minorities,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(3), pages 535 - 576.
- Simon Burgess & Ellen Greaves, 2009. "Test Scores, Subjective Assessment and Stereotyping of Ethnic Minorities," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 09/221, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Hinnerich, Björn Tyrefors & Höglin, Erik & Johannesson, Magnus, 2011.
"Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?,"
Economics of Education Review,
Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 682-690, August.
- Goldberg, Matthew S, 1982. "Discrimination, Nepotism, and Long-Run Wage Differentials," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(2), pages 307-19, May.
- Lavy, Victor, 2008. "Do gender stereotypes reduce girls' or boys' human capital outcomes? Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(10-11), pages 2083-2105, October.
- Chaim Fershtman & Uri Gneezy & Frank Verboven, 2005.
"Discrimination and Nepotism: The Efficiency of the Anonymity Rule,"
The Journal of Legal Studies,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(2), pages 371-396, 06.
- Fershtman, Chaim & Gneezy, Uri & Verboven, Frank, 2002. "Discrimination and Nepotism: The Efficiency of the Anonymity Rule," CEPR Discussion Papers 3175, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Christina M. Fong & Erzo F. P. Luttmer, 2009. "What Determines Giving to Hurricane Katrina Victims? Experimental Evidence on Racial Group Loyalty," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 64-87, April.
- Manuel F. Bagues & Berta Esteve-Volart, 2010.
"Can Gender Parity Break the Glass Ceiling? Evidence from a Repeated Randomized Experiment,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 77(4), pages 1301-1328.
- Manuel F. Bagüés & Berta Esteve-Volart, 2007. "Can gender parity break the glass ceiling? Evidence from a repeated randomized experiment," Working Papers 2007-15, FEDEA.
- Alan E. Dillingham & Daniel Hamermesh & Marianne Ferber, 1994. "Gender discrimination by gender: Voting in a professional society," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(4), pages 622-633, July.
- Giuliano, Laura & Levine, David I. & Leonard, Jonathan, 2009.
"Racial Bias in the Manager-Employee Relationship: An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm,"
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series
qt8pm012h0, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Laura Giuliano & David I. Levine & Jonathan Leonard, 2011. "Racial Bias in the Manager-Employee Relationship: An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(1), pages 26-52.
- Ahmed, Ali M., 2007. "Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 324-337, June.
- Steven D. Levitt & John A. List, 2007. "What Do Laboratory Experiments Measuring Social Preferences Reveal About the Real World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 153-174, Spring.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.