Generalized Selection Bias and The Decomposition of Wage Differentials
AbstractThe major contribution of this paper is ending a new and flexible way to measure the effects of selection on log-wages. In this context, we offer a general approach to performing decomposition analysis when selection effects are present. We call the difference between unconditional and conditional expectations of the log-wages a generalized selection bias (GSB) when the two expectations are measured using the estimates from the joint estimation of the whole model (log-wages and selection equations) by the MLE method. The unconditional and conditional expectations are, respectively, the deterministic component of log-wages, and the deterministic component plus the conditional expectation of the stochastic component of log-wages, where the deterministic component is computed using the estimates from the joint estimation. That is, the GSB is the expectation of the residuals estimated from the joint estimation. It is appropriate to apply the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method to the wage differentials adjusted for the GSB. The GSB approach to decomposition analysis is not only easy to implement and flexible enough to apply to virtually any kind of selection issue, but also efficient because it uses full information. We illustrate the GSB approach by applying it to the racial wage differentials among women using data from the Current Population Survey. We discuss the possibility of using semi-parametric or Bayesian sampling method for the joint estimation and related modifications of decomposition analysis.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 69.
Length: 56 pages
Date of creation: Nov 1999
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2000-01-24 (All new papers)
- NEP-ECM-2000-01-24 (Econometrics)
- NEP-LAB-2000-01-24 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "The Estimation of a Joint Wage-Hours Labor Supply Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 550-66, October.
- Schaffner, Julie Anderson, 1998. "Generating conditional expectations from models with selectivity bias: comment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 255-261, March.
- H. D. Vinod & B. D. McCullough, 1999. "The Numerical Reliability of Econometric Software," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(2), pages 633-665, June.
- Hardle, Wolfgang & Linton, Oliver, 1986.
"Applied nonparametric methods,"
Handbook of Econometrics,
in: R. F. Engle & D. McFadden (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 38, pages 2295-2339
- Hardle, W., 1992. "Applied Nonparametric Methods," Papers 9204, Catholique de Louvain - Institut de statistique.
- Oliver LINTON, . "Applied nonparametric methods," Statistic und Oekonometrie 9312, Humboldt Universitaet Berlin.
- Wolfgang Hardle & Oliver Linton, 1994. "Applied Nonparametric Methods," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1069, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Hardle, W., 1992. "Applied Nonparametric Methods," Papers 9206, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
- Hardle, W., 1992. "Applied Nonparametric Methods," Discussion Paper 1992-6, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- HÄRDLE, Wolfgang, 1992. "Applied nonparametric methods," CORE Discussion Papers 1992003, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Thomas Mroz, .
"The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
84-8, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Mroz, Thomas A, 1987. "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 765-99, July.
- Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
- Hoffman, Saul D & Link, Charles R, 1984. "Selectivity Bias in Male Wage Equations: Black-White Comparisons," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(2), pages 320-24, May.
- Catherine Y. Co & Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2000.
"Returns to returning,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 57-79.
- Ermisch, John F & Wright, Robert E, 1988.
"Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
278, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Wright, Robert E & Ermisch, John F, 1991. "Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 508-22, May.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Blundell, Richard & Duncan, Alan & Meghir, Costas, 1992. "Taxation in Empirical Labour Supply Models: Lone Mothers in the UK," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(411), pages 265-78, March.
- Neuman, Shoshana & Oaxaca, Ronald L, 1998. "Estimating Labour Market Discrimination with Selectivity Corrected Wage Equations: Methodological Considerations and an Illustration from Israel," CEPR Discussion Papers 1915, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- repec:cup:etheor:v:12:y:1996:i:3:p:409-31 is not listed on IDEAS
- Reimers, Cordelia W, 1983. "Labor Market Discrimination against Hispanic and Black Men," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 570-79, November.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Siddhartha Chib & Edward Greenberg, 1994.
"Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation Methods in Econometrics,"
9408001, EconWPA, revised 24 Oct 1994.
- Chib, Siddhartha & Greenberg, Edward, 1996. "Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation Methods in Econometrics," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(03), pages 409-431, August.
- Dolton, P J & Makepeace, G H, 1986. "Sample Selection and Male-Female Earnings Differentials in the Graduate Labour Market," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(2), pages 317-41, July.
- Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
- Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
- Blundell, Richard William & Ham, John & Meghir, Costas, 1987.
"Unemployment and Female Labour Supply,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
149, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ham, John C, 1982. "Estimation of a Labour Supply Model with Censoring Due to Unemployment and Underemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 335-54, July.
- Vella, Frank, 1988. "Generating conditional expectations from models with selectivity bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 97-103.
- Dolton, P J & Makepeace, G H & Van Der Klaauw, W, 1989. "Occupational Choice and Earnings Determination: The Role of Sample Selection and Non-pecuniary Factors," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(3), pages 573-94, July.
- Wales, T J & Woodland, A D, 1980. "Sample Selectivity and the Estimation of Labor Supply Functions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 21(2), pages 437-68, June.
- Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162, June.
- Fishe, Raymond P. H. & Trost, R. P. & Lurie, Philip M., 1981. "Labor force earnings and college choice of young women: An examination of selectivity bias and comparative advantage," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 169-191, April.
- James J. Heckman & Thomas E. MaCurdy, 1982. "New Methods for Estimating Labor Supply Functions: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 0858, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J. Ignacio Garcia-Perez & Juan F. Jimeno, 2007.
"Public Sector Wage Gaps In Spanish Regions,"
University of Manchester, vol. 75(4), pages 501-531, 07.
- J. Ignacio García-Pérez & Juan F. Jimeno, 2006. "Public sector wage gaps in Spanish regions," Working Papers 06.10, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
- Ignacio García-Pérez & Juan F. Jimeno, 2005. "Public sector wage gaps in Spanish regions," Banco de Espaï¿½a Working Papers 0526, Banco de Espa�a.
- Fernanda Rivas & Máximo Rossi, 2000. "Discriminación salarial en Uruguay (1991-1997)," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0700, Department of Economics - dECON.
- Tilahun Temesgen, 2006. "Decomposing Gender Wage Differentials in Urban Ethiopia: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee (LEE) Manufacturing Survey Data," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 43-66.
- Fernanda Rivas & Máximo Rossi, 2002.
"Evolución de las diferencias salariales entre el sector público y el sector privado en Uruguay,"
Documentos de Trabajo (working papers)
0202, Department of Economics - dECON.
- Maximo Rossi & Fernanda Rivas, 2004. "Evolución de las diferencias salariales entre el sector público y el sector privado en Uruguay," Labor and Demography 0409010, EconWPA.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.