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Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering?

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  • Hunt, Jennifer

    ()
    (Rutgers University)

Abstract

I use the 1993 and 2003 National Surveys of College Graduates to examine the higher exit rate of women compared to men from science and engineering relative to other fields. I find that the higher relative exit rate is driven by engineering rather than science, and show that 60% of the gap can be explained by the relatively greater exit rate from engineering of women dissatisfied with pay and promotion opportunities. I find that family-related constraints and dissatisfaction with working conditions are only secondary factors. The relative exit rate by gender from engineering does not differ from that of other fields once women's relatively high exit rates from male fields generally are taken into account.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6885.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6885

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Keywords: science and engineering workforce; gender;

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References

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  1. Hunt, Jennifer, 2012. "Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering?," IZA Discussion Papers 6885, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Garant, Jean-Philippe & Herman, Hannah & Hunt, Jennifer & Munroe, David, 2012. "Why Don't Women Patent?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9185, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Paula Stephan & Sharon Levin, 2005. "Leaving Careers in IT: Gender Differences in Retention," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 383-396, October.
  4. Nicole M. Fortin, 2008. "The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States: The Importance of Money versus People," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  5. Gauthier-Loiselle, Marjolaine & Hunt, Jennifer, 2009. "How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7116, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Todd R. Stinebrickner & Ralph Stinebrickner, 2011. "Math or Science? Using Longitudinal Expectations Data to Examine the Process of Choosing a College Major," NBER Working Papers 16869, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Preston, Anne E, 1994. "Why Have All the Women Gone? A Study of Exit of Women from the Science and Engineering Professions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1446-62, December.
  8. Hunt, Jennifer, 2010. "Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial: Distinctions by Entry Visa," CEPR Discussion Papers 7699, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Basit Zafar, 2013. "College Major Choice and the Gender Gap," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 48(3), pages 545-595.
  10. Robst, John, 2007. "Education and job match: The relatedness of college major and work," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 397-407, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Garant, Jean-Philippe & Herman, Hannah & Hunt, Jennifer & Munroe, David, 2012. "Why Don't Women Patent?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9185, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Matthias Krapf & Heinrich W. Ursprung & Christian Zimmermann, 2014. "Parenthood and Productivity of Highly Skilled Labor: Evidence from the Groves of Academe," Working Paper Series 01_14, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  3. Hunt, Jennifer, 2012. "Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering?," IZA Discussion Papers 6885, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Hunt, Jennifer & Garant, Jean-Philippe & Herman, Hannah & Munroe, David J., 2013. "Why are women underrepresented amongst patentees?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 831-843.
  5. Juan J. Dolado & Cecilia García-Peñalosa & Sara De La Rica, 2013. "On Gender Gaps And Self-Fulfilling Expectations: Alternative Implications Of Paid-For Training," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(3), pages 1829-1848, 07.
  6. Lisa D. Cook & Chaleampong Kongcharoen, 2010. "The Idea Gap in Pink and Black," NBER Working Papers 16331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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