The Impacts of Trade Liberalization on Employment and Wages in Tunisian Industries
AbstractThis paper investigates short and long-run effects of trade liberalization on employment and wages. Employment and wage equations are estimated using data (1971–96) for importable and exportable sectors in Tunisia. Causality tests show that causality is unidirectional. Wages strongly causes employment but employment does not cause wages. There is significant difference in the direction of responses in the short and long run. Results from empirical testing using the models find only support for the short-run theoretical predictions for the exportable sector. Similar results obtained for the importable sectors. We find the differences in the short and long-run wage and employment responses to changes in export to be explained by learning by doing, organizational changes and improved factor utilization and labour productivity. A possible reason for the divergence of theory and practice is that the theoretical model is premised on the basis of a fixed supply of labour. Exportable employment could therefore only rise if importable employment fell. However, as we have seen, the supply of labour increased dramatically in Tunisia as women entered the labour market. This allowed importable employment to be maintained (even slightly increased) as the exportable sector expanded.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 688.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2003
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of International Development, 2005, 17 (4), 527-551
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- Ilham Haouas & Mahmoud Yagoubi & Almas Heshmati, 2005. "The impacts of trade liberalization on employment and wages in Tunisian industries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 527-551.
- Haouas, Ilham & Yagoubi, Mahmoud & Heshmati, Almas, 2002. "The Impacts of Trade Liberalization on Employment and Wages in Tunisian Industries," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Longitudinal Data; Spatial Time Series
- E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution
- J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
- L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2003-02-10 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2003-02-10 (All new papers)
- NEP-MAC-2003-02-10 (Macroeconomics)
- NEP-PKE-2003-02-10 (Post Keynesian Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brecher, Richard A, 1974. "Minimum Wage Rates and the Pure Theory of International Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 88(1), pages 98-116, February.
- John M. Abowd & Thomas Lemieux, 1991.
"The Effects of International Competition on Collective Bargaining Outcomes: A Comparison of the United States and Canada,"
in: Immigration, Trade and the Labor Market, pages 343-367
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John M. Abowd & Thomas Lemieux, 1990. "The Effects of International Competiton on Collective Bargaining Outcomes: A Comparison of the United States and Canada," NBER Working Papers 3352, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Levinsohn, James, 1999. "Employment responses to international liberalization in Chile," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 321-344, April.
- Milner, Chris & Wright, Peter, 1998. "Modelling Labour Market Adjustment to Trade Liberalisation in an Industrialising Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 509-28, March.
- Dong, Xiao-yuan, 1998. "Employment and Wage Determination in China's Rural Industry: Investigation Using 1984-1990 Panel Data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 485-501, September.
- Mussa, Michael, 1978. "Dynamic Adjustment in the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 775-91, October.
- Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1974. "Tariffs and nontraded goods," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 177-185, May.
- Arulampalam, W. & Robin A. Naylor & Jeremy P. Smith, 2002. "University of Warwick," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 9, Royal Economic Society.
- Heyman, Fredrik, 2001. "Wage Dispersion and Allocation of Jobs," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 479, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Beyer, Harald & Rojas, Patricio & Vergara, Rodrigo, 1999. "Trade liberalization and wage inequality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 103-123, June.
- Ilham Haouas & Mahmoud Yagoubi, 2004. "Trade liberalization and demand labor elasticities : evidence from Tunisia," Documents de travail 94, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
- repec:iza:izadps:dp1084 is not listed on IDEAS
- Kyvik Nord°as, Hildegunn, 2005. "Labour implications of the textiles and clothing quota phase-out," ILO Working Papers 374452, International Labour Organization.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.