Returns to Education in Russia: Where There Is Risky Sexual Behaviour There Is Also an Instrument
AbstractFinding an instrument that is orthogonal to the disturbance term in the wage equation has been a topic of great deal of debate. Recently, Chesson et al. (2006) proposed that higher discount rates are significantly associated with a range of sexual behaviours, including having sex before age of 16 years. Following their paper, we use unprotected sexual behaviour and earlier age of sexual intercourse as alternative instrumental variables to account for endogeneity in schooling. The Bound et al. (1995) F-test indicates that our instruments are strongly correlated with schooling. We fail to reject the test of over-identifying restrictions, which demonstrates that the proposed instruments are valid and not correlated with the current earnings. In line with previous studies, our results suggest that the IV estimates of the returns to schooling are higher than the OLS estimates. In addition to the conditional mean, the proposed instruments are applied over the wage distribution using Chernozhukov and Hansen (2008) instrumental variable quantile approach.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6726.
Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
- I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
- J30 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-07-29 (All new papers)
- NEP-CIS-2012-07-29 (Confederation of Independent States)
- NEP-LAB-2012-07-29 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2012-07-29 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chernozhukov, Victor & Hansen, Christian & Jansson, Michael, 2007. "Inference approaches for instrumental variable quantile regression," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 272-277, May.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997.
"Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments,"
Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Matt Dickson, 2013.
"The Causal Effect of Education on Wages Revisited,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(4), pages 477-498, 08.
- Dickson, Matt, 2009. "The Causal Effect of Education on Wages Revisited," IZA Discussion Papers 4419, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Matt Dickson, 2009. "The Causal Effect of Education on Wages Revisited," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 09/220, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002.
"Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing,"
North American Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003
05, Stata Users Group.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2003. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(1), pages 1-31, March.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003 02, Stata Users Group.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 545, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 14 Feb 2003.
- Alberto Abadie & Joshua Angrist & Guido Imbens, 2002.
"Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Effect of Subsidized Training on the Quantiles of Trainee Earnings,"
Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 91-117, January.
- Alberto Abadie & Joshua Angrist & Guido Imbens, 1999. "Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Effect of Subsidized Training on the Quantiles of Trainee Earnings," Working papers 99-16, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Haley, William J, 1973. "Human Capital: The Choice Between Investment and Income," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(5), pages 929-44, December.
- Jean-Louis ARCAND & Béatrice D'HOMBRES & Paul GYSELINCK, 2004.
"Instrument Choice and the Returns to Education: New Evidence from Vietnam,"
- Jean-Louis Arcand & Béatrice d'Hombres & Paul Gyselinck, 2005. "Instrument Choice and the Returns to Education: New Evidence from Vietnam," Labor and Demography 0510011, EconWPA.
- Breusch, Trevor & Qian, Hailong & Schmidt, Peter & Wyhowski, Donald, 1999. "Redundancy of moment conditions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 89-111, July.
- David Card, 1994.
"Earnings, Schooling, and Ability Revisited,"
710, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Michael Spagat, 2001.
"Human Capital and the Future of Transition Economies,"
Royal Holloway, University of London: Discussion Papers in Economics
01/3, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London, revised Dec 2001.
- Spagat, Michael, 2006. "Human capital and the future of transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 44-56, March.
- Spagat, Michael, 2002. "Human Capital and the Future of Transition Economies," CEPR Discussion Papers 3517, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Geronimus, Arline T & Korenman, Sanders, 1992. "The Socioeconomic Consequences of Teen Childbearing Reconsidered," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(4), pages 1187-214, November.
- Lang, Kevin, 1993. "Ability Bias, Discount Rate Bias and the Return to Education," MPRA Paper 24651, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lalith Munasinghe & Nachum Sicherman, 2000. "Why Do Dancers Smoke? Time Preference, Occupational Choice, and Wage Growth," NBER Working Papers 7542, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Leigh, Andrew & Ryan, Chris, 2008.
"Estimating returns to education using different natural experiment techniques,"
Economics of Education Review,
Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 149-160, April.
- Andrew Leigh & Chris Ryan, 2005. "Estimating Returns to Education: Three Natural Experiment Techniques Compared," CEPR Discussion Papers 493, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, May.
- Gary S. Becker, 1975. "Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 2nd ed," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck75-1, May.
- Hause, John C, 1972. "Earnings Profile: Ability and Schooling," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages S108-S38, Part II, .
- Omar Arias & Kevin F. Hallock & Walter Sosa Escudero, 1999.
"Individual Heterogeneity in the Returns to Schooling: Instrumental Variables Quantile Regression using Twins Data,"
Department of Economics, Working Papers
016, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Omar Arias & Walter Sosa-Escudero & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "Individual heterogeneity in the returns to schooling: instrumental variables quantile regression using twins data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 7-40.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.