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Fighting Youth Unemployment: The Effects of Active Labor Market Policies

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Author Info

  • Caliendo, Marco

    ()
    (University of Potsdam)

  • Künn, Steffen

    ()
    (IZA)

  • Schmidl, Ricarda

    ()
    (University of Mannheim)

Abstract

A substantial number of young unemployed participate in active labor market programs (ALMP) in Germany each year. While the aims of these programs are clear – a fast re-integration into employment or enrollment in further education – a comprehensive analysis of their effectiveness has yet to be conducted. We fill this gap using administrative data on youth unemployment entries in 2002 and analyze the short- and long-term impacts for a variety of different programs. With informative data at hand we apply inverse probability weighting, thereby accounting for a dynamic treatment assignment and cyclical availability of programs. Our results indicate positive long-term employment effects for nearly all measures aimed at labor market integration. Measures aimed at integrating youths in apprenticeships are effective in terms of education participation, but fail to show any impact on employment outcomes until the end of our observation period. Public sector job creation is found to be harmful for the medium-term employment prospects and ineffective in the long-run. Our analysis further indicates that the targeting of German ALMP systematically ignores low-educated youths as neediest of labor market groups. While no employment program shows a positive impact on further education participation for any subgroup, the employment impact of participation is often significantly lower for low-educated youths.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6222.

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Length: 54 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6222

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Related research

Keywords: youth unemployment; active labor market policy; program evaluation; propensity score weighting;

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References

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  1. Lechner, Michael & Wunsch, Conny, 2011. "Sensitivity of matching-based program evaluations to the availability of control variables," CEPR Discussion Papers 8294, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Lechner, Michael & Miquel, Ruth & Wunsch, Conny, 2004. "Long-Run Effects of Public Sector Sponsored Training in West Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1443, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Thomas Brodaty & Bruno Crépon & Denis Fougère, 2000. "Using Matching Estimators to Evaluate Alternative Youth Employment Programs : Evidence from France, 1986-1988," Working Papers 2000-25, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  4. Fredriksson, Peter & Johansson, Per, 2004. "Dynamic Treatment Assignment – The Consequences for Evaluations Using Observational Data," IZA Discussion Papers 1062, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Goldsmith, Arthur H. & Veum, Jonathan R. & Darity, William Jr., 1997. "Unemployment, joblessness, psychological well-being and self-esteem: Theory and evidence," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 133-158.
  6. Black, Dan A. & Smith, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "How robust is the evidence on the effects of college quality? Evidence from matching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 99-124.
  7. Marco Caliendo & Armin Falk & Lutz C. Kaiser & Hilmar Schneider & Arne Uhlendorff & Gerard van den Berg & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2011. "The IZA Evaluation Dataset: towards evidence-based labor policy making," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(7), pages 731-752, November.
  8. Bell, David N.F. & Blanchflower, David G., 2010. "Youth Unemployment: Déjà Vu?," IZA Discussion Papers 4705, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003. "Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?," University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers 20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
  10. Martin Huber & Michael Lechner & Conny Wunsch, 2010. "How to control for many covariates? Reliable estimators based on the propensity score," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2010 2010-30, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
  11. Busso, Matias & DiNardo, John & McCrary, Justin, 2009. "New Evidence on the Finite Sample Properties of Propensity Score Matching and Reweighting Estimators," IZA Discussion Papers 3998, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Centeno, Luis & Centeno, Mário & Novo, Álvaro A., 2009. "Evaluating job-search programs for old and young individuals: Heterogeneous impact on unemployment duration," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 12-25, January.
  13. Richard K. Crump & V. Joseph Hotz & Guido W. Imbens & Oscar A. Mitnik, 2009. "Dealing with limited overlap in estimation of average treatment effects," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 96(1), pages 187-199.
  14. Guido Imbens & Jeffrey Wooldridge, 2008. "Recent developments in the econometrics of program evaluation," CeMMAP working papers CWP24/08, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  15. Bernd Fitzenberger & Stefan Speckesser, 2007. "Employment effects of the provision of specific professional skills and techniques in Germany," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 529-573, May.
  16. Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2003. "The Nonparametric Identification of Treatment Effects in Duration Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1491-1517, 09.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Biavaschi, Costanza & Eichhorst, Werner & Giulietti, Corrado & Kendzia, Michael J. & Muravyev, Alexander & Pieters, Janneke & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "Youth Unemployment and Vocational Training," IZA Discussion Papers 6890, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Cahuc, Pierre & Carcillo, Stéphane & Rinne, Ulf & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2013. "Youth Unemployment in Old Europe: The Polar Cases of France and Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 7490, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Caliendo, Marco & Hogenacker, Jens, 2012. "The German Labor Market after the Great Recession: Successful Reforms and Future Challenges," IZA Discussion Papers 6810, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Eichhorst, Werner & Hinte, Holger & Rinne, Ulf, 2013. "Jugendarbeitslosigkeit in Europa: Status Quo und (keine?) Perspektiven," IZA Standpunkte 57, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Maibom Pedersen, Jonas & Rosholm, Michael & Svarer, Michael, 2014. "Can Active Labour Market Policies Combat Youth Unemployment?," IZA Discussion Papers 7912, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Wolff, Joachim & Nivorozhkin, Anton, 2012. "Give them a break! Did activation of young welfare recipients overshoot in Germany? (A regression discontinuity analysis)," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62046, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

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