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Instrumental Variable Estimation of the Causal Effect of Hunger Early in Life on Health Later in Life

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  • van den Berg, Gerard J.

    ()
    (University of Mannheim)

  • Pinger, Pia

    ()
    (University of Bonn)

  • Schoch, Johannes

    ()
    (University of Mannheim)

Abstract

Numerous studies have evaluated the effect of nutrition early in life on health much later in life by comparing individuals born during a famine to others. Nutritional intake is typically unobserved and endogenous, whereas famines arguably provide exogenous variation in the provision of nutrition. However, living through a famine early in life does not necessarily imply a lack of nutrition during that age interval, and vice versa, and in this sense the observed difference at most provides a qualitative assessment of the average causal effect of a nutritional shortage, which is the parameter of interest. In this paper we estimate this average causal effect on health outcomes later in life, by applying instrumental variable estimation, using data with self-reported periods of hunger earlier in life, with famines as instruments. The data contain samples from European countries and include birth cohorts exposed to various famines in the 20th century. We use two-sample IV estimation to deal with imperfect recollection of conditions at very early stages of life. The estimated average causal effects often exceed famine effects by a factor three.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6110.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6110

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Keywords: 2SLS; obesity; high blood pressure; height; developmental origins; ageing; famine; nutrition; two-sample IV;

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  1. Markus Froelich, 2002. "Nonparametric IV estimation of local average treatment effects with covariates," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2002, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen 2002-19, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
  2. Neelsen, Sven & Stratmann, Thomas, 2011. "Effects of prenatal and early life malnutrition: Evidence from the Greek famine," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 479-488, May.
  3. Ashlesha Datar & M. Kilburn & David Loughran, 2010. "Endowments and parental investments in infancy and early childhood," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 145-162, February.
  4. van den Berg, Gerard J. & Lundborg, Petter & Nystedt, Paul & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2009. "Critical Periods During Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Adult Height Among Immigrant Siblings," IZA Discussion Papers 4140, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1976. "Child Endowments and the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S143-62, August.
  6. Behrman, Jere R & Pollak, Robert A & Taubman, Paul, 1982. "Parental Preferences and Provision for Progeny," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(1), pages 52-73, February.
  7. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984. "Heterogeneity, Intrafamily Distribution and Child Health," Bulletins, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center 8429, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  8. Atsushi Inoue & Gary Solon, 2010. "Two-Sample Instrumental Variables Estimators," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(3), pages 557-561, August.
  9. del Bono, Emilia & Ermisch, John F & Francesconi, Marco, 2008. "Intrafamily Resource Allocations: A Dynamic Model of Birth Weight," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 6970, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Douglas Almond & Bhashkar Mazumder, 2011. "Health Capital and the Prenatal Environment: The Effect of Ramadan Observance during Pregnancy," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 3(4), pages 56-85, October.
  11. Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel, 2009. "Children of War: The Long-Run Effects of Large-Scale Physical Destruction and Warfare on Children," HiCN Working Papers 62, Households in Conflict Network.
  12. Douglas Almond & Janet Currie, 2011. "Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 153-72, Summer.
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Cited by:
  1. Kesternich, Iris & Siflinger, Bettina & Smith, James P. & Winter, Joachim K., 2013. "Individual Behavior as a Pathway between Early-Life Shocks and Adult Health: Evidence from Hunger Episodes in Post-War Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 7713, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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