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Egyptian Men Working Abroad: Labor Supply Responses by the Women Left Behind

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Author Info

  • Binzel, Christine

    ()
    (Heidelberg University)

  • Assaad, Ragui

    ()
    (University of Minnesota)

Abstract

Female labor force participation has remained low in Egypt. This paper examines whether male international migration provides a leeway for women to enter the labor market and/or to increase their labor supply. In line with previous studies, we find a decrease in wage work in both rural and urban areas. However, women living in rural areas and affected by migration are much more likely to be employed in non-wage activities (i.e. unpaid family work) and subsistence work compared to women in non-migrant households. Furthermore, we find evidence that this labor supply response is driven by the household’s need to replace the migrant's labor rather than by a loosening of a financing constraint on family enterprises made possible by the flow of remittances.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5589.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5589

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Keywords: labor supply; remittances; migration; gender;

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References

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  1. Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
  2. Stark, Oded, 2009. "Reasons for Remitting," Discussion Papers 52800, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    • Oded Stark, 2009. "Reasons for Remitting," World Economics, World Economics, Economic & Financial Publishing, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 10(3), pages 147-158, July.
  3. Mendola, Mariapia & Carletto, Gero, 2009. "International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4900, The World Bank.
  4. Richards, Alan, 1994. "The Egyptian farm labor market revisited," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 239-261, April.
  5. Markus Frolich & Blaise Melly, 2010. "Estimation of quantile treatment effects with Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 10(3), pages 423-457, September.
  6. Acosta, Pablo, 2006. "Labor supply, school attendance, and remittances from international migration : the case of El Salvador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3903, The World Bank.
  7. Assaad, Ragui & Arntz, Melanie, 2005. "Constrained Geographical Mobility and Gendered Labor Market Outcomes Under Structural Adjustment: Evidence from Egypt," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 431-454, March.
  8. Michael Lokshin & Elena Glinskaya, 2009. "The Effect of Male Migration on Employment Patterns of Women in Nepal," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(3), pages 481-507, November.
  9. Kim, Namsuk, 2007. "The impact of remittances on labor supply : the case of Jamaica," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4120, The World Bank.
  10. Ragui Assaad & Christine Binzel & May Gadallah, 2010. "Transitions To Employment And Marriage Among Young Men In Egypt," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 2(01), pages 39-88.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Simone BERTOLI & Francesca MARCHETTA, 2012. "Bringing It All Back Home Return migration and fertility choices," Working Papers 201201, CERDI.
  2. Marga Peeters, 2011. "Modelling unemployment in the presence of excess labour supply," Journal of Economics and Econometrics, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels, vol. 54(2), pages 58-92.
  3. Frölich, Markus & Huber, Martin, 2014. "Direct and Indirect Treatment Effects: Causal Chains and Mediation Analysis with Instrumental Variables," IZA Discussion Papers 8280, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Göbel, Kristin, 2012. "Remittances and Gender-Speci fic Employment Patterns in Peru - a longitudinal Analysis," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 65409, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  5. Francesca MARCHETTA & Simone BERTOLI, 2014. "Migration, remittances and poverty in Ecuador," Working Papers 201407, CERDI.
  6. Patricia Justino & Olga Shemyakina, 2010. "Remittances and Labor Supply in Post-Conflict Tajikistan," HiCN Working Papers 83, Households in Conflict Network.
  7. Antman, Francisca M., 2012. "The Impact of Migration on Family Left Behind," IZA Discussion Papers 6374, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Michael Clemens and Timothy N. Ogden, 2014. "Migration as a Strategy for Household Finance: A Research Agenda on Remittances, Payments, and Development- Working Paper 354," Working Papers 354, Center for Global Development.
  9. Michael Clemens and David McKenzie, 2014. "Why Don't Remittances Appear to Affect Growth? - Working Paper 366," Working Papers 366, Center for Global Development.
  10. Sylvie Démurger & Shi Li, 2012. "Migration, Remittances and Rural Employment Patterns: Evidence from China," Post-Print halshs-00744438, HAL.
  11. Peeters, Marga, 2011. "Demographic pressure, excess labour supply and public-private sector employment in Egypt - Modelling labour supply to analyse the response of unemployment, public finances and welfare," MPRA Paper 31101, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00744438 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Koska, Onur A. & Saygin, Perihan Özge & Çağatay, Selim & Artal-Tur, Andrés, 2013. "International migration, remittances, and the human capital formation of Egyptian children," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 38-50.
  14. Mendola, Mariapia & Carletto, Calogero, 2012. "Migration and gender differences in the home labour market: Evidence from Albania," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 870-880.

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