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Evolution of Employment Protection Legislation in the USSR, CIS and Baltic States, 1985-2009

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  • Muravyev, Alexander

    ()
    (St. Petersburg University GSOM and IZA)

Abstract

This paper presents and discusses new data on employment protection legislation (EPL) in the successor states of the former USSR – the CIS and Baltic states – over 25 years from 1985 to 2009. We use the OECD methodology (OECD EPL, version II) for assessing the strictness of national labor laws with respect to employers’ firing costs. In addition to the overall OECD EPL index, we present detailed statistics for 18(22) sub-indicators used for its computation. The new data allow us to make several important observations. In particular, the data do not support the widely held view that labor regulations in the former USSR with respect to firing costs were extremely rigid and were subsequently liberalized by the 15 successor states over the course of transition to a market economy. Rather, the dynamics of the EPL index in the region resembles an inverted U-shaped pattern with the peak of labor market rigidity occurring in the mid-1990s in the CIS countries and a decade later in the Baltic States. In terms of major sub-indicators, we observe a rather unusual pattern: gradual liberalization of permanent contracts on the background of increasing regulation of temporary contracts and collective dismissals. This is in sharp contrast with the OECD economies, where liberalization of temporary contracts has been the major trend in the recent decades. By now, the ex-USSR states as a group do not differ that much from the EU-15 and OECD countries in terms of the overall EPL index, although they differ considerably in terms of contributions to the overall EPL of its thee major components, namely, regulation of permanent contracts, temporary contracts, and collective dismissals. We also show that our EPL data are correlated with a number of variables characterizing economic development, progress in market-oriented reforms, and political regimes prevailing in the countries studied, which suggests potential of using the new dataset in further politico-economic research.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5365.

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Length: 59 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5365

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Keywords: transition countries; labor market institutions; employment protection;

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References

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  1. Eichhorst, Werner & Feil, Michael & Braun, Christoph, 2008. "What have we learned? Assessing labor market institutions and indicators," IAB Discussion Paper 200822, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
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  6. James J. Heckman & Carmen Pagés, 2004. "Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number heck04-1.
  7. Giuseppe BERTOLA & Tito BOERI & Sandrine CAZES, 2000. "Employment protection in industrialized countries: The case for new indicators," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 139(1), pages 57-72, 03.
  8. Smirnykh, Larisa, 2005. "Labor leasing: economic theory, EU and Russia experience," MPRA Paper 21568, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Addison, John T. & Teixeira, Paulino, 2001. "The Economics of Employment Protection," IZA Discussion Papers 381, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Djankov, Simeon & Ramalho, Rita, 2008. "Employment Laws in Developing Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 7097, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Michele Belot & Jan Boone & Jan van Ours, 2004. "Welfare Improving Employment Protection," DEGIT Conference Papers c009_004, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
  12. Maja Micevska, 2004. "Unemployment and Labour Market Rigidities in Southeast Europe," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 49, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  13. Mitra, Pradeep & Muravyev, Alexander & Schaffer, Mark E, 2008. "Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes: Cross-Country and Time-Series Evidence from the BEEPS Surveys in Transition Economies," IZA Discussion Papers 3863, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Ricardo Lagos, 2006. "A model of TFP," Staff Report 345, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  15. Aziz Atamanov & Alexander Chubrik & Irina Denisova & Vladimir Dubrovskiy & Marina Kartseva & Irina Lukashova & Irina Makenbaeva & Magdalena Rokicka & Irina Sinitsina & Michael Tokmazishvili, 2008. "The Development Gap Between the CIS and EU," CASE Network Reports 0081, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Hazans, Mihails, 2011. "What Explains Prevalence of Informal Employment in European Countries: The Role of Labor Institutions, Governance, Immigrants, and Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 5872, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Lehmann, Hartmut & Muravyev, Alexander & Razzolini, Tiziano & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2010. "The Costs of Job Loss in Russia," IZA Discussion Papers 5415, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Lehmann, Hartmut & Muravyev, Alexander, 2011. "Labor Markets and Labor Market Institutions in Transition Economies," IZA Discussion Papers 5905, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Hazans, Mihails, 2011. "Informal Workers across Europe: Evidence from 30 Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 5871, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. H. Lehmann & A. Muravyev & T. Razzolini & A. Zaiceva, 2011. "The Wage and Non-wage Costs of Displacement: Evidence from Russia," Working Papers wp734, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  6. Vladimir Gimpelson & Aleksey Oshchepkov, 2012. "Does more unemployment cause more fear of unemployment?," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 1-26, December.
  7. Nauro Campos & Jeffrey Nugent, 2012. "The Dynamics of the Regulation of Labor in Developing and Developed Countries since 1960," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1037, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  8. Daniel Arnold, 2012. "Benefit Morale and Cross-Country Diversity in Sick Pay Entitlements," IAAEU Discussion Papers 201211, Institute of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU).

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