Pay for Percentile
AbstractWe propose an incentive pay scheme for educators that links educator compensation to the ranks of their students within appropriately defined comparison sets, and we show that under certain conditions our scheme induces teachers to allocate socially optimal levels of effort to all students. Because this scheme employs only ordinal information, our scheme allows education authorities to employ completely new assessments at each testing date without ever having to equate various assessment forms. Thus, our scheme removes incentives for teachers to teach to a particular assessment form and eliminates any opportunities to influence reward pay by corrupting the equating process or the scales used to report assessment results. Having shown that cardinal measures of achievement growth over time are not a necessary ingredient of incentive systems for educators, we note that education authorities can employ our scheme as a means of providing incentives for educators while employing a separate system for measuring growth in student achievement that involves no stakes for educators. This approach creates no incentives for educators to take actions that contaminate the measurement of student progress.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4383.
Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: American Economic Review, 2012, 102 (5), 1805-31
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
- I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-10-10 (All new papers)
- NEP-CTA-2009-10-10 (Contract Theory & Applications)
- NEP-EDU-2009-10-10 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2009-10-10 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-URE-2009-10-10 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Edward P. Lazear, 2001.
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 116(3), pages 777-803, August.
- Atkinson, Adele & Burgess, Simon & Croxson, Bronwyn & Gregg, Paul & Propper, Carol & Slater, Helen & Wilson, Deborah, 2009.
"Evaluating the impact of performance-related pay for teachers in England,"
Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 251-261, June.
- Adele Atkinson & Simon Burgess & Bronwyn Croxson & Paul Gregg, 2004. "Evaluating the Impact of Performance-related Pay for Teachers in England," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 04/113, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Green, Jerry R & Stokey, Nancy L, 1983.
"A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 349-64, June.
- Jerry R. Green & Nancy L. Stokey, 1982. "A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts," NBER Working Papers 0840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Green, Jerry & Stokey, Nancy, 1983. "A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts," Scholarly Articles 3203644, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- H. Vogt, 1983. "Unimodality of differences," Metrika, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 165-170, December.
- Christine Harbring & Gabriele K. Lünser, 2008. "On the Competition of Asymmetric Agents," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9, pages 373-395, 08.
- Jacob, Brian A., 2005. "Accountability, incentives and behavior: the impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(5-6), pages 761-796, June.
- Carmichael, H Lorne, 1983. "The Agent-Agents Problem: Payment by Relative Output," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 50-65, January.
- Scott E. Carrell & James E. West, 2008.
"Does Professor Quality Matter? Evidence from Random Assignment of Students to Professors,"
NBER Working Papers
14081, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Scott E. Carrell & James E. West, 2010. "Does Professor Quality Matter? Evidence from Random Assignment of Students to Professors," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 118(3), pages 409-432, 06.
- Ladd, Helen F., 1996.
"The Dallas School Accountability and Incentive Program: An Evaluation of Its Impacts on Student Outcomes,"
96-18, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Ladd, Helen F., 1999. "The Dallas school accountability and incentive program: an evaluation of its impacts on student outcomes," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-16, February.
- Paul Glewwe & Nauman Ilias & Micheal Kremer, 2003.
Natural Field Experiments
00257, The Field Experiments Website.
- Dale Ballou, 2009. "Test Scaling and Value-Added Measurement," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 4(4), pages 351-383, October.
- Malcomson, James M, 1984. "Work Incentives, Hierarchy, and Internal Labor Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(3), pages 486-507, June.
- Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1979.
"Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts,"
NBER Working Papers
0401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bhattacharya, Sudipto & Guasch, J Luis, 1988. "Heterogeneity, Tournaments, and Hierarchies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(4), pages 867-81, August.
- John Cawley & James Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 1999. "On Policies To Reward The Value Added By Educators," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(4), pages 720-727, November.
- Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman, 2008. "Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
- O'Keeffe, Mary & Viscusi, W Kip & Zeckhauser, Richard J, 1984. "Economic Contests: Comparative Reward Schemes," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(1), pages 27-56, January.
- Derek Neal, 2010. "Aiming for Efficiency Rather Than Proficiency," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 119-32, Summer.
- Frederiksen, Anders & Lange, Fabian & Kriechel, Ben, 2012. "Subjective Performance Evaluations and Employee Careers," IZA Discussion Papers 6373, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Cory Koedel & Rebecca Leatherman & Eric Parsons, 2012. "Test Measurement Error and Inference from Value-Added Models," Working Papers 1201, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
- Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Jonah E. Rockoff, 2011. "The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood," NBER Working Papers 17699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pedro Martins, 2010.
"Individual Teacher Incentives, Student Achievement and Grade Inflation,"
CEE Discussion Papers
0112, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
- Pedro S. Martins, 2009. "Individual Teacher Incentives, Student Achievement and Grade Inflation," Working Papers 29, Queen Mary, University of London, School of Business and Management, Centre for Globalisation Research.
- Martins, Pedro S., 2009. "Individual Teacher Incentives, Student Achievement and Grade Inflation," IZA Discussion Papers 4051, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Derek Neal, 2010. "Aiming for Efficiency Rather Than Proficency," Working Papers 2010-007, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
- Ooghe, Erwin & Schokkaert, Erik, 2013. "School Accountability: Can We Reward Schools and Avoid Pupil Selection?," IZA Discussion Papers 7420, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ooghe, Erwin & Schokkaert, Erik, 2009.
"School accountability: (how) can we reward schools and avoid cream-skimming?,"
Open Access publications from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
urn:hdl:123456789/252863, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
- OOGHE, Erwin & SCHOKKAERT, Erik, 2009. "School accountability : (how) can we reward schools and avoid cream-skimming," CORE Discussion Papers 2009085, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Erwin OOGHE & Erik SCHOKKAERT, 2009. "School accountability: (how) can we reward schools and avoid cream-skimming?," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces09.22, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
- Hasnain, Zahid & Manning, Nick & Pierskalla Henryk, 2012. "Performance-related pay in the public sector : a review of theory and evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6043, The World Bank.
- Cory Koedel & Mark Ehlert & Eric Parsons & Michael Podgursky, 2012. "Selecting Growth Measures for School and Teacher Evaluations," Working Papers 1210, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
- Derek Neal, 2011. "The Design of Performance Pay in Education," NBER Working Papers 16710, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.